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War of 1812

War of 1812

In the War of 1812, the United States took on the greatest naval power in the world, Great Britain, in a conflict that would have an immense impact on the young country’s future. Causes of the war included British attempts to restrict U.S. trade, the Royal Navy’s impressment of American seamen and America’s desire to expand its territory. The United States suffered many costly defeats at the hands of British, Canadian and Native American troops over the course of the War of 1812, including the capture and burning of the nation’s capital, Washington, D.C., in August 1814. Nonetheless, American troops were able to repulse British invasions in New York, Baltimore and New Orleans, boosting national confidence and fostering a new spirit of patriotism. The ratification of the Treaty of Ghent on February 17, 1815, ended the war but left many of the most contentious questions unresolved. Nonetheless, many in the United States celebrated the War of 1812 as a “second war of independence,” beginning an era of partisan agreement and national pride.

Causes of the War of 1812

At the outset of the 19th century, Great Britain was locked in a long and bitter conflict with Napoleon Bonaparte’s France. In an attempt to cut off supplies from reaching the enemy, both sides attempted to block the United States from trading with the other. In 1807, Britain passed the Orders in Council, which required neutral countries to obtain a license from its authorities before trading with France or French colonies. The Royal Navy also outraged Americans by its practice of impressment, or removing seamen from U.S. merchant vessels and forcing them to serve on behalf of the British.

In 1809, the U.S. Congress repealed Thomas Jefferson’s unpopular Embargo Act, which by restricting trade had hurt Americans more than either Britain or France. Its replacement, the Non-Intercourse Act, specifically prohibited trade with Britain and France. It also proved ineffective, and in turn was replaced with a May 1810 bill stating that if either power dropped trade restrictions against the United States, Congress would in turn resume non-intercourse with the opposing power.

After Napoleon hinted he would stop restrictions, President James Madison blocked all trade with Britain that November. Meanwhile, new members of Congress elected that year–led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun–had begun to agitate for war, based on their indignation over British violations of maritime rights as well as Britain’s encouragement of Native American hostility against American westward expansion.

The War of 1812 Breaks Out

In the fall of 1811, Indiana’s territorial governor William Henry Harrison led U.S. troops to victory in the Battle of Tippecanoe. The defeat convinced many Indians in the Northwest Territory (including the celebrated Shawnee chief Tecumseh) that they needed British support to prevent American settlers from pushing them further out of their lands. Meanwhile, by late 1811 the so-called “War Hawks” in Congress were putting more and more pressure on Madison, and on June 18, 1812, the president signed a declaration of war against Britain. Though Congress ultimately voted for war, both House and Senate were bitterly divided on the issue. Most Western and Southern congressmen supported war, while Federalists (especially New Englanders who relied heavily on trade with Britain) accused war advocates of using the excuse of maritime rights to promote their expansionist agenda.

In order to strike at Great Britain, U.S. forces almost immediately attacked Canada, which was then a British colony. American officials were overly optimistic about the invasion’s success, especially given how underprepared U.S. troops were at the time. On the other side, they faced a well-managed defense coordinated by Sir Isaac Brock, the British soldier and administrator in charge in Upper Canada (modern Ontario). On August 16, 1812, the United States suffered a humiliating defeat after Brock and Tecumseh’s forces chased those led by Michigan William Hull across the Canadian border, scaring Hull into surrendering Detroit without any shots fired.

War of 1812: Mixed Results for American Forces

Things looked better for the United States in the West, as Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry’s brilliant success in the Battle of Lake Erie in September 1813 placed the Northwest Territory firmly under American control. Harrison was subsequently able to retake Detroit with a victory in the Battle of Thames (in which Tecumseh was killed). Meanwhile, the U.S. navy had been able to score several victories over the Royal Navy in the early months of the war. With the defeat of Napoleon’s armies in April 1814, however, Britain was able to turn its full attention to the war effort in North America. As large numbers of troops arrived, British forces raided the Chesapeake Bay and moved in on the U.S. capital, capturing Washington, D.C., on August 24, 1814, and burning government buildings including the Capitol and the White House.

On September 11, 1814, at the Battle of Plattsburgh on Lake Champlain in New York, the American navy soundly defeated the British fleet. And on September 13, 1814, Baltimore’s Fort McHenry withstood 25 hours of bombardment by the British Navy. The following morning, the fort’s soldiers hoisted an enormous American flag, a sight that inspired Francis Scott Key to write a poem that would later be set to music and become known as “The Star-Spangled Banner.” (Set to the tune of an old English drinking song, it would later be adopted as the U.S. national anthem.) British forces subsequently left the Chesapeake Bay and began gathering their efforts for a campaign against New Orleans.

End of the War of 1812 and its Impact

By that time, peace talks had already begun at Ghent (modern Belgium), and Britain moved for an armistice after the failure of the assault on Baltimore. In the negotiations that followed, the United States gave up its demands to end impressment, while Britain promised to leave Canada’s borders unchanged and abandon efforts to create an Indian state in the Northwest. On December 24, 1814, commissioners signed the Treaty of Ghent, which would be ratified the following February. On January 8, 1815, unaware that peace had been concluded, British forces mounted a major attack in the Battle of New Orleans, only to meet with defeat at the hands of future U.S. president Andrew Jackson’s army. News of the battle boosted sagging U.S. morale and left Americans with the taste of victory, despite the fact that the country had achieved none of its pre-war objectives.

Impact of the War of 1812

Though the War of 1812 is remembered as a relatively minor conflict in the United States and Britain, it looms large for Canadians and for Native Americans, who see it as a decisive turning point in their losing struggle to govern themselves. In fact, the war had a far-reaching impact in the United States, as the Treaty of Ghent ended decades of bitter partisan infighting in government and ushered in the so-called “Era of Good Feelings.” The war also marked the demise of the Federalist Party, which had been accused of being unpatriotic for its antiwar stance, and reinforced a tradition of Anglophobia that had begun during the Revolutionary War. Perhaps most importantly, the war’s outcome boosted national self-confidence and encouraged the growing spirit of American expansionism that would shape the better part of the 19th century.


War of 1812–1815

As an important neutral trading nation, the United States became ensnarled in the European conflict that pitted Napoleonic France against Great Britain and her continental allies.

In 1806 France prohibited all neutral trade with Great Britain and in 1807 Great Britain banned trade between France, her allies, and the Americas. Congress passed an embargo act in 1807 in retaliation, prohibiting U.S. vessels from trading with European nations, and later the Non-Intercourse Acts, aimed solely at France and Britain. The embargo and non-intercourse act proved ineffective and in 1810 the United States reopened trade with France and Great Britain provided they ceased their blockades against neutral trading. Great Britain continued to stop American merchant ships to search for Royal Navy deserters, to impress American seamen on the high seas into the Royal Navy, and to enforce its blockade of neutral commerce. Madison made the issue of impressment from ships under the American flag a matter of national sovereignty—even after the British agreed to end the practice—and asked Congress for a declaration of War on Great Britain on June 1, 1812. Many who supported the call to arms saw British and Spanish territory in North America as potential prizes to be won by battle or negotiations after a successful war.

Pro-British Federalists in Washington were outraged by what they considered Republican favoritism toward France. The leading Republican, Thomas Jefferson responded, that “the English being equally tyrannical at sea as he [Napoleon] is on land, and that tyranny bearing on us in every point of either honor or interest, I say ‘down with England.’” The United States declared the war on Britain. After Napoleon’s disastrous Russian campaign of 1812, the British concentrated on the American continent, enacting a crippling blockading of the east coast, attacking Washington and burning the White House and other Government buildings, and acquiring territory in Maine and the Great Lakes region. American forces, however, won important naval and military victories at sea, on Lake Champlain, and at Baltimore and Detroit. Canadians defeated an American invasion of Lower Canada. By 1814 neither side could claim a clear victory and both war weary combatants looked to a peaceful settlement.

Under the mediation of the Czar of Russia, Great Britain and the United States came together in the summer of 1814 to negotiate the terms of peace. On Christmas Eve British and American negotiators signed the Treaty of Ghent, restoring the political boundaries on the North American continent to the status quo ante bellum, establishing a boundary commission to resolve further territorial disputes, and creating peace with Indian nations on the frontier. As the Ghent negotiations suggested, the real causes of the war of 1812, were not merely commerce and neutral rights, but also western expansion, relations with American Indians, and territorial control of North America.


War of 1812 Timeline

This illustration is from the 1816 book, The History of England, from the Earliest Periods, Volume 1 by Paul M. Rapin de Thoyras.

February 1 – France declares war on Great Britain

August 20 – General Anthony Wayne defeats a Native American confederation at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, paving the way for the settlement of present-day Ohio

April 30 – The Louisiana Purchase is finalized, adding more than 800,000 square miles to the western frontier of the United States

November 21 – Napoleon issues the Berlin Decrees

December 4 – Napoleon is crowned Emperor of France following a coup d'etat

April 18 - Non- Importation Act passed

June 22 – HMS Leopard fires on the USS Chesapeake

November 11 – Great Britain passes the 1807 Orders in Council, restricting international trade with France

December 22 – Embargo Act Passed

March 4 – James Madison is sworn in as the 4th President of the United States.

May 16 – The American frigate USS President fires on the British sloop HMS Little Belt

October 9 – Major General Isaac Brock is appointed Administrator of Upper Canada

June 18 – The United States declares war on Great Britain

June 22 – A mob in Baltimore destroys the printing offices of an anti-war newspaper

July 12 – General William Hull invades Canada from Detroit

July 17 – Fort Michilimackinac surrenders to British-Canadian forces

August 5 – Skirmish near Brownstown, Michigan

August 8 – General Hull returns to Detroit

August 15 – British forces bombard Detroit

August 16 – General Hull surrenders Detroit

August 19 – The USS Constitution defeats the HMS Guerriere

October 13 – British-Canadians win the Battle of Queenston Heights, Ontario

November 27 – Skirmish at Fort Erie

December 28 – William Henry Harrison formally resigns as Governor of Indiana Territory and takes the rank of Brigadier General.

December 29 – USS Constitution defeats the HMS Java

January 9 – Great Britain declares war on the United States

January 13 – John Armstrong replaces William Eustis as Secretary of War

January 18 – American forces seize Frenchtown, Michigan

January 22 – The Battle of River Raisin roughly 40 to 60 American soldiers are killed in “The River Raisin Massacre”

February 22 – Battle of Ogdensburg

March 4 – James Madison inaugurated for the second term as President

March 27 – Oliver Hazard Perry takes command of the flotilla at Lake Erie

April 27 – Attack on York [modern today Toronto] General Zebulon Pike is killed

April 29 – Raid on Frenchtown, Maryland by a British flotilla under the command of Admiral George Cockburn

May 1 – American forces evacuate York Siege of Fort Meigs near modern-day Toledo Ohio begins

May 3 – Royal Marines land and burn Havre de Grace, Maryland

May 27 – Engagement at Fort George

June 1 – USS Chesapeake captured by the British frigate HMS Shannon Captain James Lawrence dies days later

June 6 – Engagement at Stoney Creek

June 22 – Battle of Craney Island

June 24 – Battle of Beaver Dams

June 25 – Burning of Hampton, Virginia

August 10 – Battle of St. Michaels

August 30 – Attack on Fort Mims, Alabama

September 10 – Battle of Lake Erie

October 5 – Battle of the Thames Tecumseh is killed

October 7 – Andrew Jackson establishes camp at Fayetteville, TN to recruit American forces to combat the Creeks in Alabama

October 26 – Engagement at Chateauguay

November 11 – Battle of Crysler’s Farm

November 29 – Battle of Autossee

December 19 – Capture of Fort Niagara

March 19 – Winfield Scott is promoted to Brigadier General at the age of 27

April 4 – Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba off the coast of Tuscany Great Britain now turns its focus to the war in America

July 3 – American troops under Major General Jacob Brown cross the Niagara River and capture Fort Erie

July 22 – Treaty of Greenville

July 25 – Battle of Lundy’s Lane, one of the fiercest battles of the war

August 8 – Peace negotiations begin

August 9 - Treaty of Fort Jackson

August 9 – Stonington, CT raid begins

August 12 – Stonington Raid Ends

August 14 – General Robert Ross in command of a reinforcement consisting of 4,500 veteran
British troops arrive at the Chesapeake Bay

August 19 – British troops land at Benedict, Maryland

August 24 – Burning of Washington, D.C.

August 27 – Abandonment of Fort Warburton

August 28 – Alexandria Raid

September 6 – Battle of Plattsburgh

September 11 – Battle of Lake Champlain

September 12 – Battle of North Point General Ross is killed

September 14 – Francis Scott Key writes the first lines of the poem which would become “The Star-Spangled Banner”

November 6 – Battle of Malcolm's Mills

December 1 – Peace delegates reconvene at Ghent

December 14 – Delegates to the Hartford Convention meet in Hartford, Connecticut

December 24 – The Treaty of Ghent is signed

December 28 – The Treaty of Ghent is ratified by the British

January 5 – The Hartford Convention concludes

February 16 – The United States Senate ratifies the Treaty of Ghent

February 18 – The Treaty of Ghent is declared the War of 1812 is over

February 20 – USS Constitution engages the HMS Cyane and HMS Levant, not knowing the war was over

April 6 – Seven American prisoners are killed and 32 wounded in the “Dartmoor Massacre” at Dartmoor Prison in Devon, England


A Brief Overview of the War of 1812

The War of 1812 brought the United States onto the world's stage in a conflict that ranged throughout the American Northeast, Midwest, and Southeast, into Canada, and onto the high seas and Great Lakes.

The United States went to war against Great Britain. The British were already waging a global war against France, one which had been raging since 1793. Canada, then under British rule, became the primary battleground between the young republic and the old empire.

The seeds of war were sown in many places. Since their war had broken out, Britain and France had both tried to restrict international trade. The United States was put in an awkward position, unable to trade with either world power without incurring the wrath of the other. In response, Congress passed a series of non-importation acts and embargos, each time trying to force the European powers to feel the sting of losing access to American markets. Europe was largely unmoved, and the United States fell into an economic depression.

The average British and American soldier during the War of 1812.

During this time, the British were also doing several other things that Americans considered to be insulting. They rejected America's claim to neutrality in the global war, effectively dismissing the former colony's national legitimacy. They stopped American ships at sea and "impressed" American sailors—forcibly recruiting them into the Royal Navy on the spot. They also armed Native American tribes that preyed on frontier settlers.

From 1783-1812, the British Parliament issued twelve "Orders in Council," which declared that any merchant ship bound for a French port was subject to search and seizure. Because the United States traded regularly with France, the Orders put a heavy strain on Anglo-American relations. The Orders in Council of 1807 led to the ill-conceived Embargo Act, signed by Thomas Jefferson, which closed all American ports to international trade and plunged the American economy into a depression. In many ways the brewing war would be for freedom of the seas. A century later, the United States would once more go to war for the same cause, this time against Imperial Germany.

When James Madison was elected to the presidency in 1808, he instructed Congress to prepare for war with Britain. On June 18, 1812, buoyed by the arrival of "war hawk" representatives, the United States formally declared war for the first time in the nation's history. Citizens in the Northeast opposed the idea, but many others were enthusiastic about the nation's "Second War of Independence" from British oppression.

Ironically, the British Parliament was already planning to repeal its trade restrictions. By the time the ship carrying news of the declaration of war reached Great Britain, almost a month and a half after war had been declared, the restrictions had been repealed. The British, however, after hearing of the declaration, chose to wait and see how the Americans would react to the repeal. The Americans, after hearing of the repeal, were still unsure how Great Britain would react to the declaration of war. Thus, although one of the main causes for war had vanished, fighting began anyway.

The poorly trained U.S. army, numbering roughly 6,700 men, now faced an experienced adversary fielding over 240,000 soldiers spread across the globe. America's military fleet was large, but Britain's was much larger.

The United States entered the war seeking to secure commercial rights and uphold national honor. The American strategy was to quickly bring Great Britain to the negotiating table on these issues by invading Canada. Captured Canadian territory could be used as a powerful bargaining chip against the crown.

Portrait of Andrew Jackson painted by Thomas Sully in 1824.

The invasion of Canada, which began in the summer of 1812, ended in disaster. By the end of the year 1812, American forces had been routed at the Battle of Queenston Heights on the Niagara River, a thrust into modern-day Québec had been turned back after advancing fewer than a dozen miles, and Detroit had been surrendered to the Canadians. Meanwhile, British-allied Native Americans continued their raids in Indiana and Illinois, massacring many settlers.

The Americans performed better at sea. Although the British were able to set a semi-tight blockade along the Atlantic seaboard, American ships won several battles against British warships and captured a number of British trade vessels. The Americans continued to ably combat the formidable Royal Navy throughout the war.

American fortunes fared little better through most of 1813. An attempt to retake Detroit failed near Frenchtown, Michigan, though the resulting massacre of American prisoners at the hands of Native Americans on January 23, 1813, inspired Kentucky soldiers to enlist, heeding the new rally cry "Remember the River Raisin!" Continued attempts at capturing Canada resulted in only temporary footholds at York and Fort George along the Niagara front. The Battles of Chateauguay and Crysler's Farm again prevented American forces from advancing on Montréal.

The only considerable American successes occurred in September, with Oliver Hazard Perry winning a major naval battle on Lake Erie, and in October when the Tecumseh's Confederacy of northwestern Native American tribes was crushed at the Battle of the Thames.

Towards the end of 1813, a war among the Creek nations erupted in the Southeast between factions influenced by Tecumseh's nativism and those who sought to adopt white culture. The opposition faction, known as the Red Sticks, attacked American outposts including Fort Mims, Alabama.

Andrew Jackson organized a force of militia over the winter of 1813-1814 and defeated the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on May 24, 1814. Through the Treaty of Fort Jackson, he forced both sides of the Creek Nation, even those allied to him, to cede nearly 23 million acres of what would become Alabama and portions of Georgia.

In 1814, the newly promoted Brigadier General Winfield Scott implemented a plan of strict drill for American troops on the Canadian border. They advanced into Upper Canada and scored a decisive victory at the Battle of Chippawa on July 5, 1814, but were forced to withdraw weeks later after the bloody Battle of Lundy’s Lane near Niagara Falls.

A British raid along the Chesapeake Bay during the War of 1812.

In April, a brief peace broke out in Europe as Napoleon was forced into his first exile. Great Britain was able to shift more resources to the North American theater. The tone of the war changed as Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin described, "We should have to fight hereafter not for 'free Trade and sailors rights,' not for the Conquest of the Canadas, but for our national existence." At the same time, however, the British began the process of repealing their policies of impressment and trade strangulation.

On August 19, 1814, an expeditionary force of 4,500 hardened British veterans under the command of General Robert Ross landed at Benedict, Maryland and began a lightning campaign. After routing Maryland militia at the Battle of Bladensburg, Ross's men captured and burned the public buildings in Washington, D.C., including the White House. That month, peace negotiations began in the European city of Ghent.

On September 12, Ross and his force attempted to take Baltimore with the support of the Royal Navy. Maryland militia held off the land assault at the Battle of North Point, killing Ross. Fort McHenry repulsed the British ships in a 25-hour battle that inspired the American national anthem. The British abandoned their designs on Baltimore, but soon launched another invasion of the Gulf Coast.

On December 24, 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed and peace was agreed upon. Word was again slow to travel, however, and on January 8, 1815, Andrew Jackson engaged a British force outside of New Orleans, resulting in a stunning but ultimately pointless victory. On February 18, 1815, the Treaty of Ghent was officially ratified by President Madison, and the nation ended the War of 1812 with "less a shout of triumph than a sigh of relief." 15,000 Americans died during the war.

The terms of the peace were status quo antebellum, "the way things were before the war." All land reverted back to its original owners. British agents stopped supporting Native American raiders. The British trade restrictions and impressment policies had already been repealed. America had fought its old master to an honorable draw, and Britain had avoided disaster in North America while defeating the French in Europe. Canada gained a proud military heritage. The War of 1812 is somewhat paradoxical in that relations between the warring factions generally improved after the war.

The Native Americans, however, were the worst losers of the war. Many of them had fought in the hopes that Great Britain would insist upon a recognized Native nation in North America as part of the peace, but the British quickly abandoned the claim during the peace negotiations. Additionally, without British money and weaponry, the Native Americans lost the ability to defend their lands and attack U.S. settlements, increasing the rate of U.S. expansion.

In America, the war was followed by a half-decade now called the "Era of Good Feelings." The coming of world peace spurred an economic revival, and the collapse of the Federalist Party, which had bitterly opposed the war, removed much of the rancor from American politics. However, this was only an era, not an eternity. Having won its "second independence," the United States would soon have to confront its first sin—slavery.


War of 1812 - HISTORY


Flag from Fort McHenry during the War of 1812 that inspired the Star-Spangled Banner.

Visitor Statistics War of 1812

Fort McHenry
419,545 Visitors
#135 Most Visited National Park Unit

George Washington's Birthplace National Monument
139,666 visitors
#214 Most Visited

White House
454,117 visitors
#128 Most Visited

Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial (Lake Erie)
121,325 visitors
#227 Most Visited

Jean Lafitte National Historic Park and Preserve (Chalmette Battlefied, Battle of New Orleans)
590,329 visitors
#113 Most Visited

Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
45,372 visitors
#293 Most Visited

Boston National Historic Park
3,201,834 visits
#33 Most Visited

Source: NPS, Rank among 378 National Park Units 2019.

Park Size

Fort McHenry
43 acres (Total)

George Washington's Birthplace National Monument
550 acres (Federal) 662 acres (Total)

White House
18 acres (Total)

Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial
23 acres (Federal) 25 acres (Total)

Jean Lafitte National Historic Park and Preserve
17,466 acres (Federal) 22,983 acres (Total)

Natchez Trace Parkway
52,207 acres (Federal) 52,302 acres (Total)

Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
2,040 acres (Total)

Salem Maritime National Park
9 acres (Total)

Boston National Historic Park
37 acres (Federal) 43 acres (Total)

Park Fee

Fort McHenry
7 Day Pass: $7 - Adults (16+)
Free - 15 and under

George Washington's Birthplace NM
Free

White House
Free - Must be arranged in advance through your Congressman or Embassy

Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial
$3 - Adults (16+)
Free - 15 and under

Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve
Free

Natchez Trace Parkway
Various Sites, See Sites for Fees

Salem Maritime National Park
Free

Boston National Historic Park
Main park, Freedom Trail, Bunker Hill Monument, USS Constitution, Dorchester Heights Monument, and other Federal sites - Free

Old South Meeting House, Old State House, and Paul Revere House (all run by private association) do charge an entrance fee.

Above: The USS Constitution as it fought the British warship HMS Guerriere off the coast of New Jersey in 1812. Right: Battle of New Orleans, E. Percy Moran, 1910. Image courtesy Library of Congress. The USS Constitution was built in Boston in 1797, won two battles prior to the beginning of the War of 1812, and four during it. She was one of 22 vessels in the U.S. Havy at the time, compared to 80 British ships that were enaged in the war.

War of 1812

Let's be honest, even for most history fans, this is the war held on american soil that many know less about. It doesn't hold the same interest as the Revolution or the Civil War, and in some ways that's understandable, but in other ways, it's odd. For this War of 1812, held so close to the end of the revolution and the beginning of the american government at the end of the 18th century, began a scant generation after Washington both won the war and oversaw the first presidency. And what we do know about this conflict is that it gave us a flag inspired national anthem, from Francis Scott Key as it waved over the Fort McHenry parapet. But, of course, the history in the war was much greater than that, and it occurred at more sites than that one famous one, or the other famous one, the White House, which the British burned. Yes, they burned the White House, and the Capitol. Now that's a huge amount of history just right there.

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War of 1812 Then

But why was the war fought? Who, what, when, where, and why? Well, first off, it was fought between the British Empire (well, at least the United Kingdom, Canada, and the Indian nations that supported Great Britain) and the United States of America with their Indian allies, the Choctaw, Cherokee, and some sections of the Creek. It was fought for a variety of reasons, depending on what side you were on. There were trade restrictions brought by the British due to their war with France and Napolean, the backing of the British of the Indians fighting expansion, and the perceived desire of the USA to annex Canada. It would be fought for nearly three years, from June 18, 1812 to February 18, 1815. It would be fought from Canada to New Orleans. Picture above, Andrew Jackson commanding the U.S. troops in the Battle of New Orleans, fought ironically after the treaty to end the war had been signed.

Oh, say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave. O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave.

War of 1812 Timeline

June 18, 1812 - United States declared war on Great Britain.

June 29, 1812 - Two U.S. schooners, Sophia and Island Packet, taken by the British in the St. Lawrence River.

July 12, 1812 - U.S. invades Upper Canada and occupies Sandwich, Ontario. They would retreat to Detroit on August 15 and lose that town to British forces the next day.

August 19, 1812 - USS Constitution defeats and captures the HMS Guerriere in the Atlantic Ocean off the New Jersey coast.

October 13, 1812 - Second invasion of Canada by U.S. forces ends in defeat at the Battle of Queenston Heights. Queenston Heights is the first major battle of the War of 1812.

January 18-22, 1813 - River Raisin, or the Battle of Frenchtown, Michigan is won by British troops in the largest battle held in Michigan.

August 4, 1813 Commodore Perry sails the U.S. fleet into Lake Erie, resulting in the battle of Lake Erie on September 10 won by the U.S. , effectively cutting off British and Native American forces from their supply base in the west.

November 11, 1813 - Battle of Crysler's Farm won by British and Canadian forces.

August 24, 1814 - British invade Washington, D.C., and burn the city, including the White House and Capitol.

September 4-11, 1814 - Battle of Plattsburg won by U.S. forces.

September 13, 1814 - Fort McHenry bombarded by British in Battle of Baltimore and Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner.

December 24, 1814 - Treaty of Ghent, to end the war, signed by the United Kingdom and the United States. It would take two months for the news of the treaty to reach the USA.

January 8, 1815 - Battle of New Orleans won by the United States under General Andrew Jackson, even though the battle was fought after the Treaty of Ghent.

Feburary 16, 1815 - Treaty of Ghent ratified, officially ending the War of 1812.

Image above: Battle of Queenston Heights, John David Kelly, 1896. Courtesy Wikipedia Commons. Below: Battle of Lake Erie, William Henry Powell, 1873. Courtesy U.S. Senate Art Collection, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C., Image courtesy Wikipedia Commons.


War of 1812

The 200th Anniversary may be over, but the new Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail is still there. It was dedicated in 2012 as the anniversary events began to tell the story of the War and the historic sites. The trail itself winds around 560 miles of the middle atlantic states, taking you to various points of interest, including three national parks, Fort McHenry, George Washington's Birthplace National Monument, and the White House. The trail also includes a variety of state and local hsitoric sites that tell the story of the war as it moved throughout the Chesapeake region.

The Fort at Fort McHenry - Located on Whetstone Point along the Patapsco River, the fort has seen many incarnations since its construction over two hundred years ago. Beyond its most famous moment in the War of 1812, the fort was used as the largest military hospital in the nation during World War I when over one hundred temporary buildings were built on its grounds to care for wounded soldiers returning from Europe.


War of 1812 - HISTORY

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This documentary shows how the glories of war become enshrined in history.

The War of 1812 Full Program

The Legacy of the War of 1812 and the impact it had on Native nations in North America.

Legacies of the War

The British Blockade examines the effects the British exerted on U.S. Navy and shipping.

The British Blockade

This documentary shows how the glories of war become enshrined in history. How failures are …

This documentary shows how the glories of war become enshrined in history. How failures are quickly forgotten and how inconvenient truths are ignored forever. With stunning reenactments, evocative animation and the incisive commentary of key experts, The War of 1812 presents the strange and awkward conflict that shaped the destiny of a continent.

This documentary shows how the glories of war become enshrined in history. How failures are quickly forgotten and how inconvenient truths are ignored forever. With stunning reenactments, evocative animation and the incisive commentary of key experts, The War of 1812 presents the strange and awkward conflict that shaped the destiny of a continent.

This documentary shows how the glories of war become enshrined in history.


War of 1812 Discharge Certificates: Soldiers by Unit

Capt. Erskurius Beatty's Co.
Daniel Cross, Henry Despert.

Capt. Thomas Martin's Co.
Edward Abbey, Joseph Carroll, William Denton, Joseph Knowles, George Paschal, John Pournel/Pournell.

Capt. Abner Prior's Co.
Noah Heath.

Company Not Indicated
Michael Burke, John Cockle, William Dawson, Patrick Dever, Isaac Fleming, David Gardner, Jacob Grimm, Archibald Kelly, John Kersey, William McDonald, John McDow, George Richardson, Jacob Rogues, Nicholas Smith, Conrad Wiggins, Charles Younghart.

Capt. Howell Lewis's Co.
William Belfield, John Coons, Peter Goard, John Pago, Barnard Pierce, Samuel Sealor, Daniel Smith, John Woods.

Miscellaneous Records Capt. Guions [sic, Guion], Capt. H. Lewis, Capt. Thomas Lewis, Capt. William Lewis, Capt. Reed, Capt. Sparkes [sic, Sparks], Capt. Springer, Capt. Tinsley.

1st Infantry

Capt. Thomas Hamilton's Co.
James Curry.

Capt. Daniel Hughes's Co.
James Wilson.

Capt. Ballard Smith's Co.
Robert Broad, John Smith.

Capt. David Strong's Co.
Matthew Mitchell.

Capt. Matthew Arbuckle's Co.
James Cunningham. Lt. Joshua B. Brant's Detachment of Invalids (or Supernumeraries)
William Gray, James Wells, Elias V. Wood. Capt. Alexander Brownlow's Co.
John Devine, Robert Divan/Devin, Alexander Irvine, Jacob Neff.

Lt. Shubael Butterfield's Detachment of Invalids
Dominick Sandford, William Weaver.

Capt. Reuben Chamberlin's Co.
William Girrard, Anthony Palmer, Abraham Timbrook, John Williams.

Capt. Edmund Pendleton Gaines's Co.
James D. Scott.

Capt. John Miller's Co.
John Beard, Daniel Campbell, Jacob Hiers, Samuel Pendock, William Vastbinder.

Capt. Alexander Ramsey Thompson's Co.
David Blissard, Walter Boyd, Samuel Bradbury, Joseph F. Lowd, George Nieus.

Company Not Indicated
John Clark/Clarke was apparently in this regiment.

Capt. Henry Atkins's [sic, Atkinson's] Co.
James Cherrintone/Cherrington

Capt. Samuel Waring Butler's Co.
William C. Friell, John Mitchell.

Capt. William Butler's Co.
Laban [Loben] Bennet, Joshua James, Isaac Jones, Willie Jones, John Moss, James Smith.

Capt. Henry Chotard's Co.
Thomas Clark, Nathan Harris.

Capt. Duncan Lamont Clinch's Co.
Andrew Easley.

Capt. James Edward Dinkins's Co.
John Boswell, James Braswill, Arthur Hill, Moses Hubbard, Patrick Kelly, Stephen Tucker.

Capt. William Laval's Co.
Joseph Watson.

Capt. Samuel C. Mabson's Co.
Anthony Labrosier.

Capt. John McClelland's Co.
Victor Bennet, George Brown, Charles Compton, William Conkling, John Hixon, James Nelson.

Capt. Hays G. White's Co.
William D. Annadell, Charles Brimmer, Jeremiah Dawson, Nathaniel Gale, Stephen Gestford, Levi Humphrey, James Jerrome, Daniel Muse, Walker Muse, Ewel Rust, Solomon Springer, Noble Veazey.

Capt. Joseph Woodruff's Co.
Richard Fuller.

Capt. John Binney's Co.
Calvin Hall.

Capt. George Gooding's Co.
Samuel Dearborn, John Miller.

Capt. Lewis Peckham's Co.
Fordice Paine, Benjamin Tilton.

Company Not Indicated
Richard Boyington.

Capt. Richard Hales Bell's Co.
John Cloherty, Ransom Hull, James Neal, Joshua Turner.

Capt. Eben (Ebenezer) Child's Co.
Gideon Lincoln.

Capt. John R. Corboley's Co.
Isaac Stroap, Jonathan Thompson.

Capt. William L. Foster's Co.
Mark Whalen.

Capt. John Fowle Jr.'s Detachment
Alexander Forguson/Ferguson.

William S. Henshaw's Co.
William Bell, Traverse Benson, George Bosswell, Jacob Boyer, Matthew Branch, Willis Carter, James Charleston, George Connor, John Crossley, Charlemagn Defour, John Finn [?], William Fowson, Jesse Gowing, Phillip Gowing, James Green, Michael Kitts, Joseph Lippincott, Bernard May, David McKnight, Alexander Murray, Anderson Reynolds, William L. Richardson, George Robinson, Jacob Ross [or Stott or Hoff?], Stephen Simonds, Samuel Stewart, James Taylor, Benjamin Thomas, Samuel Thomas, Tarleton Thomas, Peter Trexler, Cornelius Vencant, William Waterfield, Samuel Welpley [enlisted as Whelpley], William Wood.

Capt. John Jamison's Co.
James Brownley, Alvin Cressey, Philip Harman, Caleb Harrington, Otis Johnson, Francis Lawyer.

Bvt. Maj. Morrill Marston's Co.
William Gleason.

Capt. LeRoy Opie's Co.
William Bennett, Soloman Cherry, Jonathan Dudley, Andrew D. Guinea, Peter Stickney [Hickney?].

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Bartholomew Buck [or Burk?], George W. Dill, Samuel Diskey, Thomas Hanna, George Kaullough/Kaulough, Henry Rees, James Sargeant.

Company Not Indicated
William Bache, John L. Sprogel.

Capt. John T. Arrosmith's (T. J. Arrowsmith's) Co.
Jeptha Heminger.

Capt. Londus L. Buck's Co.
Delaplain Giffin, John Smith, Arthur Walker, William C. Wiley, Richard Worrell.

Capt. Ralph Burton Cuyler's Co.
Andrew Sweeney.

Capt. James E.A. Master's Co.
Robert Marshall, Obediah Tompkins.

Capt. Edward Webb's Co.
William Rogers.

Detachment at Fort Columbus
Henry Bayou, Abraham Blonk, Joseph Doty, Charles Jadwin, Abraham Townsend, Robert Varty, Isaac Vredenburgh, Thomas Wildy, William Williams.

Man at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Samuel Dean.

Company Not Indicated
Samuel Browne, Henry Dapue, Daniel Devinney, John Duffy, Thomas Hasard, ____ Hibbs [first name not indicated], James Lord, Adam Mace, John McDanold/McDonald, Daniel Morris, John Powley, William Williams. William Secord may also have been in this regiment his record is filed with men whose unit or place of service is not indicated.

Capt. George Bender's Co.
Leonard Alger, Amos Boutell, John G. Grossman, Samuel Kerr, Nicholas Lamb, Samuel Libbey, Zebulon Richardson, Patrick Ryan, Henry Simonton, William F. Terry.

Capt. William L. Foster's Co.
Enoch Abbot/Abot, Jacob Brown.

Capt. Abraham Fuller Hull's Co.
Thomas Briggs, William Briggs.

Capt. Chester Lyman's Co.
Fisher Ayres.

Capt. James F. Norris's Co.
Stephen Clark, John Cordwell, William Merrick, Benjamin Sweet, Tilley Woodward, John Young.

Company Not Indicated
Elijah Douglass, Phinehas Frost, Luther Gregory, Ami Kelton, Peter Sandborn.

Capt. Phillip Brittain's Co.
Daniel Mooney.

Capt. Joseph Clay's Co.
John Elmoore.

Capt. Jesse Copeland's Co.
James Bateman.

Company Not Indicated
James Norris, John Rice.

2nd Lt. John Varnum Barron's Co.
Alanson Adams.

Capt. Richard Bean's Co.
Nathaniel Palmer.

Capt. John Bliss's Co.
Gates Blanchard, Nathaniel Colbath.

Capt. Malachi Corning's Co.
John Reed.

Capt. David Crawford's Co.
Patrick Elliet.

Capt. William Sewell Foster's Co.
Daniel French, Elisha Plumb.

Capt. Valuntine R. Goodrich's Co.
Enoch Bickford, William Bickford, John Brown, Samuel Drown.

Capt. Horace Hale's Co.
John Herrick/Herreik, John Hunt, Jonathan Ward.

Capt. Jonathan Stark's Co.
John Hunt, Daniel Wentworth.

Capt. John W. Weeks's Co.
Simion Atwater, George Sherland, Luther Southworth.

Capt. James Charlton's Co.
George Barnhart, James Berry, Jesse Brown, Benjamin Cox, Van Dairy, Enoch Dunn, Thomas Durham, John Eberline, Enoch Ellsley, Edmund Ferguson, Luke Flanagan, Moses Harris, John J. Martin, Preston McClelland, Ezra Mitchell, James Morgan, Richard Morris, Hugh Nelson, David Ray, John Rice, Armsted Tapp, Jonathan Thatcher, John Waddle, John Williams.

Capt. Andrew Lewis Madison's Co.
John Bush, Adam Fast, George Green [Grein?], Abraham Herbaugh, Jacob Keller, Boston Kneedler, Jacob Kneedler, James Lee, John Levy, Edward McComich, John McElvoy, John Mitchall, Ervin Mulhorn, James Murphy, Nathaniel Needles, William Nicholls, John Wilson, Uriah Wolverton, James Woodard.

Capt. James Paxton's Co.
James Akins, John Allison, Thomas Blinco, Gasper Bonner, Peter Bunett, Anguish Campbell, Samuel Conally, Peter Cook, John Craver, Edward Devenport, Philip Hoover, Jonothan Hudson, James Murry, Jacob Pentinss [?], Robert Todd, Charles Way, John Woodard.

Capt. Thomas Post's Co.
Charles Alexander, William Beck, Jonathan Bowman, James Butt, James Carmer, Isaac Davis, William Dawkins, Enoch Ferrill, Powell Hall, James Hunt, Andrew Hutcherson, Fleming Keyser, David Martin, William McKinney, Joshua McKnight, Jacob McMahon, Joseph Miles, John Quick, Benjamin Roberts, Thomas Simpson, Nehemiah Slater, John Stephens, Benjamin Steward, Richard Tibbs, Dickerson Timpkins, Rodolphus Townley, Thomas Turner, Jessee Wells, Lewis Williams, James Wilson, Thomas Wrose.

Capt. Lewis B. Willis's Co.
Fushee Ashby, Matthias Baker, John Brumley, John Cordell, Christian Corder, Simeon Corder, James Crawford, William Cross, John Davis, Henry Day, Edward Devaughan, James Devaughan, Cornelius Evans, George Forbes, Simeon Fry, Henry Haddox, Patrick Hanvy, William Hight, David Huston, Sherod Martin, Henry Maxfield, Martin McLaughlin, William Morgan, John Nichols, George Sampson, William Sisterson, Hugh Walker, Thomas Ward, John H. Waymer.

Capt. John L. Fink's Co.
William L. McLaughlin.

Capt. Samuel Haring's Co.
Henry Wheeler.

Capt. Stephen Watts Kearney's Co.
Charles Fluvel.

Capt. Mordecai Myers's Co.
William Dexter.

Capt. John Sproull's Co.
Timothy Lucas.

Lt. John Williams's Detachment
Henry Jones.

Company Not Indicated
James Davis, John Hustler.

Regimental Staff
John McNamar.

Capt. Richard Arell's Co.
Samuel Barnes, William M. Conklin, Stephen McCarrier, Martin Redmond, Abijah Smith, Isaac Van Bibber.

Capt. Reuben Gilder's Co.
James Allen, Lewis Augh, Everhard Banks, Abraham Beatty, Bayne L. Berry, James Burk, Henry Causer, Cornelius Cloud, John Cochran, Joshua Corbin, Samuel Daws/Dawes, Phillp Deaver, John Gardner, William Hayes/Hays, Joseph Hyatt, William Jamison, William Jarrett, Henry Lindemore, Fredrick Lobenstine, Jacob Lobenstine, George Low, Henry F. Low, John McDaniel, Charles Miles, Benjamin Nailor, Stokely Newman, Archabald Parkans, Joseph Ricks, Nathan C. Smith, Samuel Smith, John Strahan, William Thornell, Francis Tibbins, Samuel Tydd, Jacob Wildt.

Capt. Joseph Marechal's Co.
John Abott, Alexander Bailey, James A. Bayard Jr., John Beattys, Samuel Belville, John Beverlo, Thomas Bingham, Peter Bowen, Benjamin Boyer, Nehemiah Brittenham, John Brunan, Zachariah Casey, Moses M. Clay, John Colven, James M. Cullin, John Davis, Elijah Duskey, James Fletcher, Zebedee Fortine, William Gillis, Bennet Grace, George B. Graves, Eleazer E. Green, Thomas Green, James Griffin, David Hanes, Simon M. Headman, Levin Henderson, James Holstone, Judson Hoy, Joel Jordan, James Karnahan, John Keppold, Benjamin Keys, Philip Lee, John List, Joseph Lutz, George Mack, Alexander Massey, Thomas Meek, Peter Moraro, John Morford, Justus Morris, Benjamin Murphy, Thomas Murray, Isaac Nichols, Patrick Norris, William Randle, Charles Saffell, Thomas Skilley, Jacob Smith, Tully Sneed, William Steller, Nathaniel Sykes, William Tarr, Thomas Vance, Francis Vingard, William Weightman, Thomas Wilks, John Worthington.

Capt. William McIlvain's Co.
Hezekiah J. Balch, Richard Boyle, Joseph Culbertson, Hambleton McBlair, William McConn, Barney McCormick, Samuel Moore, George Powley, Joseph Price, Thomas Quillan, Jacob Rice, Adam Rimmey, William Spencer, John Varnes, John Voice, Joseph S. Wyatt.

Capt. Thomas Montgomery's Co.
James Barr, Thomas Church, William H. Cohen, Patrick Egnew, John Goddard, Frederick Hose, Caleb Hotchkiss, Hugh Hubberd, Berton/Burton Johnson, William Johnson, John Mercer, Hugh Robinson.

Capt. Clement Sullivan's Co.
Samuel Boyd.

Company Not Indicated
Shelby Hobbes.

Capt. Joseph L. Barton's Co.
Lewis Bronson, Elijah Dunham, Phillip Holbert [aka Phineas Halbert] (Note 14), John Huler, James McCann, Hugh Stevenson, David Utt.

Capt. Charles Carson's Co.
Emery Humphreys.

Lt. Alexander Godwin's Detachment
Job A. Beach, Abraham Degrote, Samuel Emly, Isaac Garnsey, Benjamin Guinniss, Gilbert Kearney, John D. Stephen, Isaac Williams.

Capt. John Lambert Hoppock's Co.
John Uber.

Capt. Zachariah Rossell's Co.
Caleb Bonnell, John Carr, Michael Cunningham, Phineas Halbert [aka Philip Holbert] (Note 14), Wildman Hall, Joseph G. Smith.

Capt. Henry H. Van Dalsem's Co.
Ichabod Allen, William Bowers, William Campbell, William Curtis, Daniel Dunham, Thomas Dunn, William Haughy, John Henry, Michael Magher, John Simonson.

Capt. White Youngs's Co.
James Ashmore, Anthony Benoit, Stephen C. Cobb, Calvin Cook, Francis Dixey, John Martin, Hiram Millington, Jacob Mires, Henry Shepherd, William Wentworth.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Edward Haup, William Ostvugh/O'Strugh.

Squadron on Lake Champlain (under command of Capt. White Young)
Michael Quinn.

Company Not Indicated
Richard Hallowell, Joseph Heed, Francis Naisan, Thomas C. Willis.

Field & Staff
Roswell Smith.

Lt. John Caldwell's Co.
James Bradley, Joseph Dovons, John Gott, John Greiner, Hector McFatrick, Samuel Milner, Abraham Nonamaker, Joseph Robb, Joseph Sefford, Michael Titus, John Weaver.

Capt. William Davenport's Co.
Samuel Huff.

Capt. Miles Greenwood's Co.
Thomas Cunningham.

Capt. Thomas Lyon's Co.
Stephen Beech [?], Roger S. Bigelow, John Caskey, William Closson, George Collins, Richard Hamilton, Caspar Knedlar, Hugh O'Donly, Henry Tomlinson.

Capt. John Machesney's Co.
William Conklin, Charles Harman, William T. Smith, William Walker 2nd.

Capt. Alexander McEwen's Co.
James Farrell, Bernard Galaugher [?], Thomas Hough, John Jones, Henry Nowland, William Price, George Sailor, John Shewel, Andrew Shingleton, Richard Sill, John Smith, Joseph Still, Isaac West.

Lt. Thomas M. Powers's Co.
James Shillingsford.

Capt. George G. Steele's Co.
Benjamin Boyan, Joel Brown, Ezrael Butler, Philip Clutz [?], John Davis, Nicholas Deeker, John Grapewine, James Jennings, Charles Leo, Thomas McGee, Alexander McKinly, Solomon Sullivan, John Williams, Jacob Williamson.

Men at Fort George
Peter Donnelly, N. M'Laughlin.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
John Bouhie, _____ Braceland [first name not indicated], Daniel Crate, William Curry, Hugh Dougherty, James Douglass, Jacob Haley, James Leggit, James McIntire, John Murdock, Lewis Olmstead, Christopher Traxler, Charles Willcox.

Company Not Indicated
Thomas Harding, Jacob Lister, Bernard Shriner, Samuel Warring.

Capt. Robert Edwards's Co.
Daniel Braner.

Company Not Indicated
John Maxwell.

Capt. John Gray Blount's Co.
John Bland, Mathias Cone, James Creekman, Daniel Curgomes [Coganus?], Erwin Faunt, William Riggs, Jasper Smith, Peter H. Smith, William Turner.

Capt. George Butler's Co.
James Rogers.

Capt. Owen Clinton's Co.
Nelson N. Duke, James Ivey, Thomas Morgan, Levi J. Whatley.

Capt. James Hamilton's Co.
William Shaw.

Capt. Edward King's Co.
William Neighbours.

Capt. Thomas J. Robeson's Co.
William Anderson, John Ashley, Lewis Bass, Rice Bass, Harman Bolton, James Braddy, Joseph Buchanan, John Cole, Stephen P. Connell/Connel, John Connelly, John Cooke, Hugh Cunningham, John Cunningham, Martin Gurley, Daniel Haily, Benton Holiman, William Jackson, Hugh Johnson, Alexander Lashley, John Martin, Charles McArthur, John McArthur, Malcolm McDuffie, Hugh McIntyre, Peter McLauchlan, Jacob Miller, Daniel Munroe, Daniel Norman, Seth North, John Perry, Joseph Plummer, Reuben Sauls, John Steel, John Story, William J. Tate, Bryant Taylor, Daniel Twigg, Richard S. Williamson, Littleberry Woodliff.

Capt. Henry P. Taylor's Co.
William W. Brown, Patrick Dorning, Samuel Norris, Ephram Tiller, Samuel S. Ward, Moses Williams.

Capt. William Taylor's Co.
Joseph Boin [?], John Cape, Samuel McClellan/McClellen, William McCurry, Jacob Pruet Sr., John Vandegrift.

Capt. Montague G. Waage's Co.
Jesse Holmes, Samuel B. Lewis, John Mounce.

Company Not Indicated
Samuel Key.

Capt. John T. Chunn's Co.
Andrew Leaf.

Lt. William MacDonald's Co.
William Gulridge.

Capt. Henry Branch's Co.
John S. Mitchum.

Capt. Reuben Crawford's Co.
Reuben Crawford.

Capt. John ("McCraye") McRae Jr.'s Co.
Wyatt Lantrip [?].

Capt. John A. Thornton's Co.
William Speck.

Capt. Torrington's Co.
Thomas Bush.

Company Not Indicated
Drury/Drurry Hudson, John Smith, Charles Snead, David Trial.

Lt. Josiah Bartlett's Detachment
Alvarius Willard.

Lt. William Bowman's Co.
Robert Mann.

Capt. Lemuel Bradford's Co.
Winthrop Barton, John Raynes, Samuel S. Thompson.

Lt. Sullivan Burbank's Co.
James Clark, John Fisher, John Waymoth.

Capt. Ira Drew's Co.
William Hutchins.

Lt. Thomas Harrison's Co.
Zachariah Soule.

Capt. Benjamin Ropes's Co.
Abraham Durgin.

Capt. Charles Edward Tobey's Co.
Robert Hill.

Capt. Joseph Treat's Co.
Phineas Ames, Zachariah Hussey, John Keegan, Enoch Leathers Jr., John McIntire, James Mills, Thomas Pool, Nathan Thombs, Gardner Trask, Joseph Trask.

Capt. Josiah H. Vose's Co.
Nathan Bacheldor, Jonathan M. Ballard, Isaac Farwell, Joshua Grant Jr., Ebenezer James, Lorain M. Judkins, Ebenezer Stearns, Caleb Whittore.

Company Not Indicated
Henry Buckmore, James Lamb Jr., Willard Smith, John Withus.

Capt. Willis Foulk's Co.
John Gordon.

Lt. Robert R. Hall's Co.
Richard Barre.

Capt. Thomas Lawrence's Co.
Andrew Kitlinger.

Capt. William Morrow's Co.
Hugh Crawford, George Crowl, John Emrick.

Capt. John Pentland's Co.
William McQuown.

Lt. Samuel A. Rippey's Co.
John Dobson.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Alexander Anderson, Parley/Pardy Bennet, Thomas Hough.

Company Not Indicated
Gideon Low, Leonard St. Clair.

Capt. Horatio Gates Armstrong's Co.
Henry Ambler, Nathan Bacon.

Lt. Peter L. Hogeboom's Co.
Thaddeus Green.

Lt. Justus Ingersoll's Co.
Wolston Wright.

Capt. Peter Mills's Co.
Jonathan Thompson.

Capt. Azariah W. Odell's Co.
John Dalzell.

Capt. Samuel Tappan's Co.
Simeon Salisbury.

Capt. Derck Van Veghten's Co.
John Watkins 3rd, Joseph Wood.

Company Not Indicated
Elijah Armstrong, John Bartholomew, Gabriel [Grabib?] Bennet, Zenah Call, Aldredge Carpenter, David Conkleton, Daniel Connell, John Conway, David Corey Jr., Samuel Cornwall, Benjamin Cornwell, Jabez Crane, Samuel Dickinson, John Dinsmore, James Dopp [or Dobb], Samuel Hawkins, Daniel Johnson, James Knapp, John Knight, Samuel Lewis, Andrew McMillen, Seth Nicholson, Roswell Olds, Thomas Parker, Jonas Pembrook, Henry Persall [Pearsall?], Rodolphus Simons, Daniel Skinner, Thomas P. Smith, William Spencer, Thomas Storrs, Ambrose Thompson, Abel Warren/Warrin, John Watterman, Labius [Lebius?] Young.

Company Not Indicated
Patrick Bigley.

Capt. William Battey's Co.
Hezekiah White, James Wilner.

Lt. Jesse Beach's Co.
John Moore.

Ensign Alexander T.F. Bill's Co.
Benjamin Whitman.

Capt. Peter Bradley's Co.
Stiles Burroughs, John Chatterton, Isaac Hubbell, Samuel Tibbets.

Lt. James Burbidge's Co.
James F. Hazen, Zephen Nash.

Ensign John Gifford's Co.
Archibald White.

Capt. George Howard's Co.
Andrew Ainsworth, Spicer [?] Ruddnow [?].

Maj. Daniel Ketchum's Detachment
Shadrach Robinson, Thomas Turner.

Capt. Joseph Kinney's Co.
Alexander Adams, James Burton, William Judd, Francis Parker.

Capt. Henry Leavenworth's Co.
Daniel Cummings, Solomon Stanton.

Capt. John Bates Murdock's Co.
Tobias Bright, Otho Cocks, Daniel Fitzgerald, Enoch Hickson, James Kinnett, John Sutton, James Young.

Capt. Seth Phelps's Co.
James Charles, Lathrop Davis.

Lt./Capt. Thomas M. Read's Co.
Francis Burns, Thomas Cole, John D. Felton/Felten, Ziba Hinkle, Joseph Jones, Richard Noris/Norris, Richard Sheckley.

Capt. Thomas S. Seymour's Co.
Robert Bennett.

Capt. William Walker's Co.
Joshua C. Burton.

Capt. Benjamin Watson's Co.
William G. Baidstone, Thomas Hewitt, John Ludwick, James Munn, James Robbins, John Sparks.

Lt. Edward White's Co.
Joseph Drake.

Company Not Indicated
John Bennet, Worcester Cooper, William Cummings, Sylvester Fuller, William Harrison, John Hewlett, Warren Holcomb, Jacob Miller, John H. Mitchell, Nathan Sellick, Simeon Sloot, James Soles, John Stiverson, William H. Upright, Epenetus F. Webb, Ransford Whitney.

Capt. William Bezeau's Detachment
John Aldridge, William Bradbury, John Cooper, Joshua Coxe, Joseph Finerty/Finnerty, John Jackson, Thomas Johnson, Aaron Pursel/Pursal.

Capt. Ira Williams's Co.
Philip Lovering.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
John Gardnor, Patrick McDevitt.

Company Not Indicated
Isaac Blacksford, Hosea/Hossea Conner, Joseph Freeman, Zera King, Daniel Knight, Charles Mathias, Samuel Morris/Moris, John Peters, William Smith.

Capt. Matthew D. Danvers's Co.
Henry Sherwood.

Capt. Elam Lynds's Co.
William Albrough, David P. Nutting.

Capt. Lyon's Co.
Andrew Miller.

Company Not Indicated
James Blakeslee, Martinus/Mattinus Brate, John Goold/Gould, Daniel Gray, Ezra B. Griffith, Isaac Groat, Nathaniel Hunt, Luke McQuin, James R. Moody, John Perry, John Ralston, Samuel Tucker, John Van Huvenbergh [on record for Luke McQuin], Shubel/Shubael T. Weeks.

Capt. James Taylor's Co.
Josiah Brush.

Capt. Robert Patterson's Co.
Hugh H. Erwin, Alexander Fullerton, William Hackney, James McCloskey, John Myers/Mayers, Adam Shivers, John R. Thompson.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Thomas Irwine, Daniel McCloud.

Capt. Benjamin Adams's Co.
James Allbee, Joseph Pannal, David Quint, Jeremiah Robinson.

Capt. Francis Drew's Co.
Isachen Lane, John Lane.

Capt. Benjamin Dunn's Co.
David J. Dunn, Joseph Webster Jr.

Capt. Elijah Foss's Co.
Zachariah Knox, Michael Lawyer, Elisha Strout, Jeremiah York.

Capt. Rufus K. Goodenow's Co.
Nathaniel Cole, William Lord, William White.

Capt. Isaac Hodsdon's Co.
Thomas Bartlet, Joseph Basford, John Bennett, Thomas L. Bickford, Charles Bradford, Abner Buckman, Isaac Burton, Abner Chase, Absalom Douglas, William Droelly/Dwilly, Samuel Durgen, George Fletcher, Charles George, William Hammons, David K. Hayes, Bartlet Holmes, James Hutchings, Arnold Inman, Morey Inman, Samuel Jellison, Samuel Jellison Jr., David Keniston/Kennison, James Kitridge, Elihu Lancaster, Levi Levey, Abraham Longley, Thomas Mayo, Daniel Millikin, Milbrey Mitchell, Edmund Mudget, Nathaniel Mudget, Abel Packard, Richard Palmer, William Richardson, Nathan Sellick, Benjamin Spauldin, Daniel C. Thompson, Moses Towne, Benjamin Warner, Enock Woodman.

Company Not Indicated
Uriah Abbott, William Allen, Elisha Bither, Robert Blair, Abiather Bodwell, Stephen Bridges, John Carbary, James Carlton, William Carter, Aaron Clark, Timothy Cleveland, James Coffin, Henry Cole, Libbeus Collamon, Obediah Cramm, Jeremiah Cranmore, John Curtis, David Davis, Samuel Davis, Freeman Dawes, Arthur Dennis, Dean Densmore, Edward Donnelly, John Doughty, Clement Drew, Francis Dudley, Joseph Dyer, Wheeler Dyer, John P. Eastman, Daniel Eldridge, Robert Emery, Aaron/Aron Fogg, Joseph Grant, William Hamblin, David Hanson, Andrew Herriden, Seth Hilton, Ebenezer Hopkins, Jonathan J. Hunt, James Jones, John Knight, Ebenezer Knox, Silas N. Lane, Nathaniel Leach, Thomas Learnerd, Ezekiel Lincoln, Jonathan Littlefield, Simon Lord, Hezekiah Lumbard, John Marshall, James Mason, John Meserve, Robinson T. Mills, David Mitchell, Enoch Moody, Richard Morse, John Moulton, William Murch, Ephraim Nickerson, Stephen Paine, Henry Parsons, Nathan Pendexter, William B. Peterson, Thomas Pindexter, Dodovah Plummer, Joseph Potte, Joseph Pottle (Note 15), John Sanboum/Sanboun [?], Robert Sawyer, George Simpson, James Sinclair, George Smith, Nathan Smith, Noah Smith Jr., Paul M. Snow, Robert Spear, John Spencer, Aaron Stevens, Solomon Stuart, Artemos Turner, John Wakefield, Ezra Waldron, Josiah Wallace, Joseph H. Waterhouse, James Weeks, John Wentworth, Patrick White, Benjamin Whitten, Quincy Williams, Israel Woodbury, Richard Young.

Capt. Joseph C. Addams's Co.
Thomas P. Steward.

Capt. Benjamin Bailey's Co.
James C. Churchill, Ichabod Spencer, Henry M. White.

Capt. Peter Chadwick's Co.
Abiel Abbot, Barnard Center, Jacob B. Demeritz, Simion Dening, John P. Dollaft [?], Samuel Freeman, John Hussey/Hussy, John B. Judkins, William Mayhew, Joseph Merrall, Joseph Mitchel, Charles Peterson, Chandler Russell, Bradbury [?] Smith, John Stacy.

Capt. Daniel Crossman's Co.
Samuel Adams, Ephraim Bryant, John Gray, Thomas Hardy, Benjamin Jenks, Robert Row.

Capt. Robert Douglas's Co.
Joseph Barter, Ephraim Benson, Daniel R. Chandler, Seth Fogg, John Libbey, Robert Osgood, Newel Sanbourn, Henry Shurbourn, Isaac Smith, James T. Smith, Stetson West.

Lt. Jeremiah Ede's Co.
Jesse Smith.

Capt. Robert R. Kendall's Co.
Joseph Banks, John Elder, Isaac Martin, Charles Frederick Merit, Caleb E. Parker, David Reynold, Nathaniel Stearns.

Capt. Sherman Leland's Co.
Thomas Barrows, John Batrong, George McKenny, John G. Mosart, James Perkins.

Capt. John Merrill's Detachment
Noah Foster, Isaac Pinkham.

Capt. Benjamin Poland's Co.
John Austin, Nathan Austin, James Bagley, Elisha Bedel, Stephen Clapham, Joseph H. Clark, Robert Evans, Benjamin Frost, Samuel Gilman, James Hodgdon, John Holmes, Jacob Jones, Caleb Kimball, David Lambert, Dennis Lane, George Libby, Hubbard Nickerson, Eleazer Nock, Thomas Rankings, James Russell, Elexander Smith, Obediah Taylor, Samuel Tibbets, Josiah Whittier, Shuball Wixen Jr.

Lt. Royal D. Simons's Detachment
Samuel Tolman.

Lt. William A. Springer's Detachment
Thomas Alley, James Bacon (?), Reuben Cole, Samuel Dunnel, Hiram Earl, Seth Gerry, Hawes Hatch, James Hendrick, Ralph Hill, Job Libby, Nathaniel Martin, Jeremiah Mitchel, Jacob Riyal/Royal [?], Daniel Sprague, William Wirtman.

Capt. William Sweet's Co.
George Doe, Abraham McLewis [McLucas?], Isaac Ricker, Elias Shurburne, Archibald Thimsen.

Company Not Indicated
Ephraim Abbot, David Bagley, John Blyther, Joseph Boyce, Dennis Bragdon, Timothy Clark, Rufus Coburn, Joseph A. Crossman, James Curtis, James Elliot, Abijah Foster, Isaac Guptail, Otis Legg, Christian L. Lund, Andrew Marshall, Moses Meder, Thomas Morris, James Murphy, John Nash, William Nevers, Nathan Proctor, Samuel Richard [Richards?], Amos Richardson, James Shibles, George W. Thomas, John Whitney, Benjamin Woodman.

Capt. Thomas Carberry's Co.
John Lightell.

Capt. Samuel Rasin's Co.
Samuel Rasin.

Company Not Indicated
Dr. Asahel Hall.

Capt. James Harvey Hook's Co.
Patrick McDonough.

Capt. James Davis's Co.
Robert H. Enochs, James D. Fisk, Edmond Gandy, Henry Laswell, Jonathan Moore, Arthur Murray, Nicholas Parks, John Queen, Amos Read, Lodawick Robertson, James Shepherd, Lamuel Simmons, Henry Studevant, James Trammell, Thomas Warren, James Woods.

Capt. James Gray's Co.
William Cox, Bryant Currel, James Dunlavy, Luke Earp, Zadoc Freeman, Absolem Goforth, Daniel Harmon, Rigdon Hobbs, Ezekiah Kirkpatric, George Martin, George May, John McGee, Dennis Murphey, Charles O'Neal, William Ramsey, Nathaniel Redden, Richard Richards, Elijah Richardson, Samuel Roach, David Robertson, John Robertson, John Steal, Joseph Stewart, Robert Strother, Ellis Williams, Elisha Williams, John Williams, John York, Thomas Zook.

Capt. Henry Henniger's Co.
David Claunch.

Capt. John Jones's Co.
Abner Armstrong, John M. Bolles, Archibald Cannon, William Derrickson, Richard Dover, William Grant, Thomas Howard, James Lynch, Macomb MacCown, Robert Martin, William McGahey, Robert McGill, William Moasley, Henry Morris, Thomas Shepherd, David Woodall, John Woodall.

Capt. John B. Long's Co.
Thomas Allison, Greenberry Bab, Jesse Betha, John Boarin, John Brittin, Gabriel Caves, Nicholas Clark, Benjamin W. Cunningham, James Dobbs, Joseph Eastess, John Edwards, William Garret, John Gibbons, William Goodrich, Jeremiah Gray, John Hamock, Jacob Harden [Harder?], Henry Harper, Benjamin Herd, Christopher Hobbs, Samuel Hutchisson, Thomas Jones, Dempsey Jordan, William Langdale, Joel Longley, Joseph Longley, Charles Matheny, Lewis Matheny, Soloman McCloud, Henry Meazel, Mathew Miller, Abraham Morgan, David Nelson, Alexander Oursler, Robert Page, Dempsey Parker, Perter Porter, John Sea Jr., John Sea Sr., Ezekiel Shearly, James Shearly, Joel Shelton, John Sillman, Samuel Smith, Samuel Wilkinson, John Williams, William Wilson, Thomas Wood.

Lt. Bernard M. Patterson's Detachment
Matthias Chronister, Larkin P. Lewis, William Reynolds.

Capt. John Phagan's Co.
Joseph Adkisson, Joseph Alexander, John Barnett, Robert Barnett, Henry Brazier, Michael Burkhalter, William Cain, John Crofford, Hezekiah Danley, Lewis Davis, Thomas Dixon, William Fortney, Robert Gaines, Zecharah Green, Richard Hankins, William Hardin, Robert Harris, Asa Journagin, John Loder, Robert Michell/Mitchael, Philip L. Munson, John North, Benjamin Osleium/Osleum, Peter Perryman, George Phink, John Reynolds, Lenard Rhoden, John Sands, George Scroggins, Hezekiah Seals, William Smith, William Sumptor [Sumpter], John Whitaker, Acklen Woods, Thomas Wright, Joseph Wyatt.

Capt. Thomas Stuart's Co.
James Bennefield.

Capt. William Walker's Co.
Charles R. Benson, Carter Brandon, Isaac Conly, William Cresen, Jacob Gentry, John Harbenson, Jeremiah Harrison, Robert Harrison, Moses Hart, Solomon Hart, Anthony Hudgeons/Hudgions, Jarrard Huffman, Jacob Hufman, Francis Kizer, John Lemmons, James Maddon, James Malcom Jr., Abel McArthur, Joseph Miller, James Morrison, John Parks, Hannibal Perry, James Proctor, William Roach, James Sevier, Absalom Walters, William Weatherford, James Wilkeson.

Detachment (Commander not indicated)
Abraham Denton, James Duffield, John Nelson, John Owens, James Sumter.

Company Not Indicated
David Childress.

Capt. John Fillebrown Jr.'s Co.
John Dickson, Benjamin Mulliken.

Capt. John Leonard's Co.
Joel Barrus, Charles Bird, Asa Bosworth, Amos Boutwell, Joseph C. Brown, Asa Bryant, Rufus Campbell, John T. Cobb, Ichabod
Coffee, Nathan Coffee, Rufus Coffee, Joseph Coleman, Henry Crofford, David Davis, Abel Dean, Walter Dean, Joseph Dodge,
Thomas Foster, Oliver Fraizer, John V. Gale, John F. Giles, Silas Hall, Reuben Hardy, Moses Hemphill, William H. Hewit, Daniel Howland, Isaac Jacquith, Gilbert Jones, Jenkin Jones, John Knight, Joseph B. Knights, Reuben Lamberton, Samuel P. Merritt, Philip Miller, John Montgomery, Samuel Pendleton, Jonathan Rand, Seth Randall, Samuel Robertson, John Schollar, Josiah Scribner, Elijah Sebree, Lewis Sloter, Charles Smith, Ebenezer Staples, Obediah Stoddard, James Thayer, David Thompson, Thomas Thompson, Atkin Todd, Samuel M. Varnum, Seth Walker, Samuel Waterman, John Whitelock, Nathaniel Whittemore, Levi Wilson, Aaron Wood, David Wymer.

Capt. James Perry's Co.
Samuel Albro, James Bates, Reuben Bates, James Borde, David Bourke, Benjamin Braman, Daniel Carr, George Clark, David Cole,
Daniel Collins, Samuel Cranston, Henry Cummings, Charles C. Cushing, Nicholas C. Cushing, Andrew Dillon, Nathaniel Drown,
James Duffel, Joseph Elliot, Elisha Franklin, Benjamin Gardner, David Gardner, Samuel Gardner, John W. Goodson, William Green, Silas Greenman, Welcome Harrindeen, John Hendrick, Benjamin Holland, Hans Johnson, Thomas Jones, William H. Jones, Peleg C. Lewis, Abner Luther, John Lynch, Samuel Manley, George Mann, Gardner U. Mitchell, Zebulon Northup, Isaac S. Osburn, Lyman Peck, John B. Perry, Joseph Pettis, Stephen Pettis, Hazard Potter, John Rising, Jeremiah F. Rogers, Anthony Sheldon, John Sheldon, Thomas Simmons, Lewis Smith, Henry Snow, Francis Southwick, Jason Sprague, Solomon Sturtevant, Joseph M. Taylor, Oliver Tinnant, Joseph W. Vose, Andrew F. Wagner, Josiah Webster, Joseph Weeden, John Wetheril, Joseph Wonderly.

Company Not Indicated
Samuel Hodges Jr., Sewall Hutchason.

Capt. George W. Barker's Co.
Hugh Allen/Allin, Thomas Grimes, Samuel Nealy/Nealey, Lewis Nicholls/Nickolas, Jacob Rees, David/Daniel Ross, John Seese/Seease/Sease, Thomas Vandergrift/Vandigrift.

Capt. John Jehu Robinson's Co.
Jacob Andy, David Bangs, James Books, Joseph Collins, Martin Culp, Thomas Davis, John Donacky, James Ferrier, John Kislar, William Marsh, John McDevitt, Isaac McDowall/McDowell, Pomenius Olford, Adam Rothrick, George Shuler, Benjamin Staunton, Adam Winegardner.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Duncan Cane, John Davis, William Hornby/Holmley, Jonathan Simpson.

Capt. Henry Garrett's Co.
Timothy Langston.

Capt. John L. Thompson's Co.
John H. Clements.

Capt. Isaac L. Baker's Co.
Wiley V. Harper.

Capt. Joshua Danforth's Co.
Hermon Blanchard, James Buswell, John Chote, Robert Cochran, Daniel Colomy, William Cunningham, Beniah Woodward.

Capt. Smith Elkins's Co.
Samuel Hinkley.

Capt. Elijah Hall's Co.
William Baker, Jacob Foye, William Simpson.

Capt. Daniel Holden's Co.
Ebenezer Albee, Daniel Arlen, Nicholas Arter, Benjamin Bailey, Joseph Bennett, James Blodget, Moses Brown, Jonathan Burbanks, Ebenezer Burges, Dunham Campbell, Samuel Carr, Jonathan Chapman, John Clark, Thomas Clark, Ezekiel Clough, Ebenezer Cobb, Josiah W. Coburn, Josiah W. Coburn Jr., Benjamin Coggins, William Colby, William Cole, Stephen Cook, Joseph Creasey, Thomas Crocket, Thomas Crowell, John Cushing, Samuel Davis, Shubal Davis, Stephen Davis, Elias Duly, Samuel Edmunds, Robert Erskine, Enoch Fisk, Robert Ford, James Foye, Benjamin Gale, John Gilbert, John Hall, Jonathon Haskell, William Heath, Ezekiel Higgins, David Hilyan, William Holden, William Hudson, Elijah Hunter, Benjamin Jackson, William Jackson, Daniel Kimball, James Kincaid, James Lampson, James B. Lyon, William McPheters, Spencer Nelson, Thomas Newhall, James Osmore, Joseph Owen, Dalel/Daniel Page, William Patterson, Richard Powers, Benjamin Putney, Thomas Rankin, Joseph Remick, Nathan Smith, Lewis Stone, Charles Stuart, John Stuart, Daniel Thurstin, Luther Turner, Joseph Tyler, Moses H. Wardwell, Robert L. Wheelright, Ebenezer White, Joseph Whitney, Daniel L. Wilkins.

Capt. Henry Snow's Co. (Note 16)
Thomas Lewis, Jonathan Osgood Jr., Benjamin Tarr.

Capt. Nathan Stanley's Co.
Samuel Adams, Thomas Lowell, James Wilson.


Lt. Samuel Sylvester's Detachment (Note 17) (see also folder "Lists of Discharged Men")
John Bickmore, Josiah Colcord, Lot Conant, James Douglass, David Durgan, William Elwell, Levi Gould, Samuel Guy, John Hacket, Joseph Hayes, Elijah Heggins/Higgins, Samuel Hodjkins [sic], Thomas Lewis, Jacob Lufkin, John McElister, John McLucas, Stephen Melcher, Moses Michaels, Amariah Morrill, Zachariah Norton, Jonathan Osgood Jr., Ezra Sawyer, James Sweet, Charles Swift, Benjamin Tarr.

Capt. Thomas B. Sylvester's Co.
John Olds.

Company Not Indicated
George Abbot, Benjamin Allen, David Atkins, Enoch Bailey, Benjamin Baker, Benjamin Barret, Isaiah Brown, Robert Brown, Richard Carr, John W. Chesley, Tilly H. Cleasby, Charles Cocks, Samuel Cossen, James Costellow, Samuel Craigg Jr., James Deaker, John Deeker, John Dinslow, Israel Douglas, John Dunnells, Jonas Farnsworth, Solomon Furnell, Benjamin Gerry, James Gibbs, Martin Gill, William Gray, John Groves, John Groves Jr., Joseph Harris, David Hathen, James Herrington, Cornelius T. Hinkley, Joseph Holt, Nathan G. Howard, William Johnson, Michael Joseph, David Kimball, Guy Kincaid, William Kincaid, John Kinne, Samuel Lewis, Levi Lighton, Samuel Lisherness, Abner Loomis, Aaron Lufkin, Benjamin Lufkin, John Lufkin, Stephen Lufkin, John Mars, Thomas M. McFadden, William McFadden, James McLucas, Jeremiah McLucas, Robert McLucas, Joseph Milikin, Caleb Moody, John Mouton, Abel Nutting, Samuel Page, Smith Palmer, John Parshley, Elisha Patterson, John Russell, Samuel Sennet/Sinnit, Lemuel Small, William Spencer, Edward Stafford, Robert Stevens, James Talman, John Todd, Clarkson Turner, Stephen Vivuan, Ichabod Weymouth, Zenas Whitten, Elisha Winslow, Samuel Yates, Isaac Young.

Capt. Arthur P. Hayne's Troop
Joseph Howell.

Capt. William M. Littlejohn's Co. (Note 18)
Thomas Con [Com?], Jeremiah Mannaka.

Capt. Asa Morgan's Co.
John C. Burns.

Lt. Abel Wheelock's Co.
Ephraim Spoor.

Capt. Clinton Wright's Co.
Andrew Carmeain.

Lt. George Birch's Co.
Lewis Myers.

Capt. Henry Bowyer's Troop
Peter Conley, David Hopkins, John Lawless, Andrew McCleary, Berryman Tate.

Capt. George Haig's Co. (or Troop) (Note 19)
Henry Barnaby, Benjamin Cunningham, John Foster, Ebenezer Randall, Nathaniel Satchwell, George Shippey, Lewis Slyears. (Note 20)

Capt. William Winston's Co.
William Barnett, James Becks, Craddock Blanks, John Breck, Noble Hamm, John Powers, John Sailor, Perrigan Scott, James Sears, John Stanley, James M. Sweeney, Berrman Tate.

Company Not Indicated
Gwinn Fletcher.

Capt. Noah Lester's Co.
David Sherman.

Capt. Selleck Osborn's Troop
Alexander S. Jackson, Ezra Lumbart.

Lt. I. [J.?] Palmer's Detachment
Cyrus B. Adams, George Brown, Benjamin Gage, Nathan B. Harvey, John Huse, James Laird, Benjamin Maple, George Mucmannimy, Harmon Norton, William Pierce, Raymond Reynolds, Henry Shattuck.

Company Not Indicated
John M. Clement, James Coveart (Note 21), Joshua Frink, John Miller.

Capt. John A. Burd's Troop (or Company)
Jasper Johnson, William Spicer.

Capt. Samuel D. Harris's Troop (or Company)
Benjamin Beers, William Bordley, Francis Doble, Ezekiel Fletcher, Moses Green, Joseph Hadley, Elisha Harrington, Chayes Taylor, John Wareing/Warring, Beriah Warner, Levi Wells, John Withington.

Capt. Samuel Goode Hopkins's Troop
John Buntin, Joseph Coney, Samuel Dawson, William W. Ewing, Charles L. Peale, Daniel Pool, Erskin Robertson.

Capt. Joseph Selden's Co.
Pleasant Hazelwood, Isaac Hoel, Isaac Howell.

Capt. Charles Smith's Troop
Thomas Burk, Samuel Field Jr.

Company Not Indicated
John Brink, John Gardner/Gardiner, Peter Tremper.

Capt. George Gray Jr.'s Co.
James Mitchell.

Capt. Lodowick Morgan's Co.
William Patrick.

Capt. Thomas Ramsey's Co.
Robert Carter, Joseph Morris.

Capt. Edward Wadsworth's Co.
John P. Carter.

Company Not Indicated
Benjamin White.

Capt. Walter Coles's Co.
Walter Coles.

Capt. Joseph Kean's Co.
Ebenezer Cannon, Thomas Dawson, John P. Ditzler, Amos A. Dyal, Michael Forbes, Daniel Humm, John Irwine, Archibald Kidd, Robert Koozer, John Kritzler, James Mackey, George Mann, Frederick Marker, Patrick McAlenny, John Minton, Armstrong Moore, John Morgan, Philip Mullen, William Murtough, Jesse Orndorff, Joseph Sanderson, Samuel Webster, Joseph L. Willson.

Capt. John Lytle's Co.
Silas Adams, John H. Anthony, Jonathan Balcum, John Beebe, Robert J. [?] Benton, James Butterfield, William Clark, Michael B. Collins, William Conner, Elias Croucher, John Davis, John Dearborn, Andrew Dyer, Daniel Eggerton, James Ellison, John Evans, Tarrence Farmer, Thomas Hathorn, Henry Henione, Alva Hill, Seymour Howe, Seth Hull, Robert B. Hutchinson, Benjamin Jenkins, Benjamin H. [R.?] H.HJewell, Caleb Joy, Ephiam Kendall, Abel Kenny, Edward Kerney, Bartholomew Kittles, James Lewis, Ward Lock, Ware McConnell, Felix McDonald, David McMurphey, David Montgomery, Joshua W. Morgan, Richard Mullen, William Mulloy, Brazilla Nicholson, Alexander Patton, Abr'h [Abraham] Perry, Charles Phiney, William Pugsley, George Pulphrey, Cornelius Reed, Stephen Robert, Harrison G. Rogers, Jeremiah Rogers, William W. Roper, John Ross, Henry Schoonoven, Lemuel Scott, Benjamin Sherman, Henry Simmons, Robert Simpson, John Smithe, Eli Tanner, William Tarble, David Thomas, George Thomas, George Tibbets, John B. Tucker, Samuel Van Schaick, Josiah Whitlocke, Chester Williams, John Willis, John Wood.

Company Not Indicated
James Johnson.

Capt. Benjamin Birdsall's Co.
David D. Irwin.

Company Not Indicated
Benjamin Kinney.

Capt. William Cocks's Co.
Moses Cook, John Gardner, John Page.

Capt. Enoch Humphrey's Co.
William Downs, Daniel Howe, Henry O'Harra, Ewele E. Wright.

Capt. James B. Many's Co.
Benjamin Adams, John Arnold, Charles Kelly, William Ledger, Thomas McDonald, Matthew Tumbletee.

Capt. James Read's Co. (1806) (Note 23)
James Robinson.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Thomas Andrews, Abraham Antrim, John Bender, Obediah Brown, John Clowden, George Daily, John Kinsler, George Kizer, Henry Kurtz, Daniel Ludlam, William McCray, Richard Pioven/Pawin, Michael Reinhard, Sampson Shearman, Jonathan Stanton, George Strade, Nicholas Wagner.

Capt. John Wingate Gookin's Co.
Joshua Skiner/Skinner (Note 24), John Toland.

Capt. James Green's Co.
Henry Brown.

Capt. Julius Frederick Heileman's Co.
John Blake, Daniel Driggan, Samuel Mullikin, Robert White.

Capt. Rufus McIntire's Co.
Samuel Carter, Samuel S. Colby, Henry Hart.

Capt. Francis Newman's Co.
Eli Capon, Philip Carroll, John Davis, John Gaffney, James Glassford, Noah W. Lewis, Thomas Martin, Oliver Plumbley, William D. Smith.

Capt. Joseph Philips's Co. (Note 25)
John R. Conley, Francis Hartgraves, James Roberts/Robberts.

Capt. George H. Richards's Co.
David Aldridge, Joseph Ayres, Piere Bailey, Thomas Brown, Joseph L. Calder, John Capps, Elijah Collins, Charles Conret/Cornet, Isaac Dempsey, Daniel S. George, David Hanaford, Patrick Hart, William Hennesy, Benjamin Jenkins, Isaac Long, Benjamin Marker, James McCoy, Charles Mooney, David Morgan, Thomas Redding, Sylvester Rowley, Elizer Seeley, Benjamin Smith, John Thompson, John Warner, Stephen Woolman.

Capt. John Ritchie's Co.
James McCrossen.

Capt. Richard Augustus Zantzinger's Detachment
Isaac Barker, John Wooley/Woolley.

Capt. Addison Bowles Armistead's Co.
William Adams, John Chalton, William Creeley/Creely, James Hanlon, John Lester, Thomas McMoran, Daniel Moses.

Capt. Stephen Conover's Co.
John Hulett.

Bvt. Maj. Ichabod Bennet Crane's Co.
Jacob Groves, Lot Hall.

Capt. Samuel T. Dyson's Co.
Jonathan Dear, David Dunning, John Moody.

Capt. William Gates's Co.
William Hudner, Martin Shoop, Hugh S. West.

Capt. Nathaniel Leonard's Co. (Note 26)
James Cole, Charles Jadwin, Andrew Rochead [?], Jacob Shefft.

Capt. Benjamin Kendrick Pierce's Co. (Note 27)
James Howard.

Lt. Samuel Rockwell's Detachment
Shimwell Goodnow.

Capt. James T.B. Romayne's Co.
Nathan Sanborn Prescott, Louis Slyears (Note 28), Thomas Webster.

Capt. James. Strode Swearingen's Co.
Isaac Bunnel.

Capt. John De Barth Walbach's Co.
Nathan Smith, Joseph Williams, William Williams.

Company Not Indicated
Peter Bunk, Jonothon Dar [Dear?], Abner Smith.

Capt. Samuel B. Archer's Co.
John Hazelwood.

Capt. James Nelson Barker's Co.
Joseph Derrickson, George Prager.

Capt. Thomas Biddle Jr.'s Co.
John Murdock.

Bvt. Maj. Alexander C.W. Fanning's Co.
John Brown, Peter McDonald, William Pecure.

Capt. Spotwood Henry's Co.
Jesse L. Morton.

Maj./Bvt. Lt. Col. Jacob Hindman's Co.
Dr. Cottrin, Edmund Doughtery, John Goff

Capt. Benjamin Lawson's Co.
William Peters.

Capt. William Nicholas's Co.
Gideon Clark, Obadiah King, Mayhew Morris, David Simpkins.

Capt. James Reed's Co. (1813) and Capt. James Read's Co. (Artillery, 1806)
Samuel Kreiser/Cryser (1813), Michael Ring (1813), James Robinson (1806).

Company Not Indicated
William Brady, Henry Carman, John Gordan.

Lt. John P. Bartlett's Co. (Note 29)
Samuel Andrews, William Webb Jr.

Capt. Jonathan Brooks's Co.
Elijah Foot, Nathaniel Loomis, John Murphy, William Smith.

Capt. William King's Co.
Allen Brunson/Brownson.

Capt. James McKeon's Co.
Loring Pottle, John L. White.

Capt. Benjamin S. Ogden's Co.
Elisha Adams, William Leeard.

Capt. Benjamin Kendrick Pierce's Co.
John Quicksell.

Capt. Thomas Stockton's Co.
Charles Cartey.

Capt. Horace Harvey Watson's Co.
James Adams Jr.

Company Not Indicated
John H. Bennett, James Douglass, Priest Jerread/Jerreaud, Conklin Lewis, John H. McLellen, Isaiah Parker, Samuel Pollay, Jedidiah Skinner, Elijah Swift, Henry Wilson.

Company Not Indicated
John Switzer.

Lt. John R. Bell's Co.
Samuel Arno, Jonathan Weares.

Capt. William Bezeau's Co. (Note 30)
Samuel Clarke.

Capt. Benjamin Branch's Co.
Eleazer Ames, Amos Brown Jr., Ezekial W. Clements, David Dunn.

Capt. William Campbell's Co.
Robert Francis, Michael Grumble, James Hutton, John Matrow, William Ozier, Samuel Pope.

Capt. Nathan Estabrook's Co.
Timothy Knox.

Capt. John N. McIntosh's Co.
Robert Doughterty, James Getchell/Gitchell, Nathaniel Marston, William B. Marvin, James Paddy, ___ Patterson [first name not indicated].

Capt. Arthur Whetham Thornton's Co.
Samuel Clark, James Farmer, John Hines [?], Ephram Pixley, William C. Watson.

Company Not Indicated
Weasmaon Cohoon, Enoch Dearborn, William Withington.

Capt. Luther Leonard's Co.
James Brice Jr.

Capt. Robert Hector McPherson's Co. (Note 31)
Alexander Kinion/Kinyon/Kenyon Jr., Joseph F. Mial, Henry Wheeler.

Capt. George Washington Melvin's Co.
William Finch, Thomas Sharp.

Lt. Wilkinson's Co., regiment not stated, 1811
Robert Laughlin.

Lt. Lawrence's Co., 1811
Perum Atkins, Edward Howard, Solomon Padget.

Col. Denny McCobb's Volunteer Regiment, 1814 (Note 32)
Robert Withington.

3rd Military District
Justus Post.

4th Military District
Dr. James Mease.

Corps of Engineers, Company of Bombadiers
Lyman Smith, Ebenezer Spear.

Corps of Engineers, Company Not Indicated
Zadock Robinson.

Paymaster General's Department
Charles Williams (private waiter for J. Bell, A.D.P.M.G.)

Quartermaster General's Department
Jabez Davis.

Militia at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks, 1814
Bartholomew Kelly.

Men who Served on Lake Champlain, 1814 (*indicates names appear on two lists). Called "Affidavits Relating to Service on Lake Champlain" in Table of Contents.

Elijah Albright,* Philip Allsworth/Alsworth,* Ezra Baker, Peter Benson,* Phillip Berkley/Borkley,* James Boggs,* Ezra Borkin [?], William Connally/Connelly,* Thomas Crossley,* John Darr,* Clayton Dodney,* Hugh Edgars/Edgers,* James Fletcher,* James Galagher/Gallagher,* John Goodrich,* Jacob Hiliard/Hillyard, Zebah Hooper, H. Jones, Henry Jones, Lawrence Jurtison/Juttison, Benjamin Ketchum/Kitcharn [?],* James Love,* Henry Mason/Muson,* John McEver/John McKever,* John McHenry, John McKiney, Thomas McMarowy/McMaromy/McMenomy,* Jacob Mork [?]/Muck,* Samuel Peirson/Pierson,* Levi Peters,* Thomas Potter,* William C. Prager,* John Saterfield,* Robert Sharp,* Jacob Skaat, James Stroud,* William Taylor,* James Tremble,* James Vandeventer,* John Wise.*

Man at Fort Mifflin, 1808
Tyrus [?] Hurd.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks, 1814
Patrick Conoway, John Dilsauer [?], Henry Waters.

Men Whose Unit or Place of Service is not Indicated (Most of these men are listed as having "Unit not Stated" in Appendix III).
William Brown, Abraham Delamater, Sylvenus Franklin, Rufus Frisbie, John Gordon, Joseph Guignon, William Haze, John Hurst, Henry Jones, Samuel Langebach, William Lighthall, James Linsey, Felix Long, James Torrence McConnell, Robert McKinsey [?], James Minar, William Secord, Thomas Smith, Jeremiah Wells, William Whithington, Thomas Wilkins.

Civilians

Marie Foxe [see Dr. James Mease], John Lewis [see Dr. James Mease], Charles Williams [see Paymaster General's Department], two unnamed women [see Obadiah King]

Prisoner
James Brown [see James Robinson]

Note 14: Phillip Holbert, aka Phineas Halbert, was in both Capt. Joseph L. Barton's Co. and in Capt. Zachariah Rossell's Co., 15th Infantry.

Note 15:Joseph Potte and Joseph Pottle were two different men.

Note 16: All three men also served in Lt. Samuel Sylvester's Detachment, 45th Infantry.

Note 17:Lewis, Osgood, Jr., and Tarr also served in Capt. Henry Snow's Co., 45th Infantry.

Note 18: Mannaka's record shows this company to be in the 1st Light Dragoons.

Note 19: The various discharges show this company to be in the Dragoons, Light Dragoons, or 1st Light Dragoons.

Note 20:His discharge indicates service in both Capt. Haig's Co. and in Capt. James T. B. Romayne's Co., 1st Artillery.

Note 21: Mentioned in record for John Miller.

Note 22: The record does not clearly state the nature of the organization to which this man belonged.

Note 23:Filed together with Capt. James Reed (1813), 2nd Artillery.

Note 24:Also served in Capt. Alexander J. Williams's Co., Artillery Corps.

Note 25: John R. Conley, Francis Hartgraves, and James Roberts are on one record in addition, there is a separate record for Francis Hargraves.

Note 26: This company also indicated as being in just "artillery."

Note 27: He was a brother of President Franklin Pierce.

Note 28: His discharge indicates service in both Capt. Haig's Co. and in Capt. James T. B. Romayne's Co., and is filed with the records for Capt. Haig's Co., Light Dragoons.

Note 29: Also called Lt. Bartlett's Artillery Co., 3rd Infantry. See 3rd Infantry for a company commanded by a Lt. Bartlett.

Note 30: Capt. William Bezeau commanded a company of infantry in the 26th Regiment there may have been artillerists assigned to his command.

Note 31:Also spelled MacPherson this company also simply stated to be "Light Artillery."

Note 32: Denny McCobb was appointed colonel of the Maine and New Hampshire Volunteers, Dec. 23, 1812 appointed colonel of the 37th Infantry, Mar. 26, 1814 transferred to the 45th Infantry, Apr. 21, 1814 and honorably discharged June 15, 1815. Robert Withington's discharge, dated July 1814, is on a discharge certificate of the 45th Infantry, but annotated to indicate discharge from McCobb's volunteer regiment.

This page was last reviewed on August 15, 2016.
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War of 1812

Note: This article focuses primarily on land campaigns for more detailed discussion of naval campaigns, see Atlantic Campaign of the War of 1812 and War on the Lakes in the War of 1812.

This painting by Edward Percy Moran depicts the last major confrontation of the War of 1812, the Battle of New Orleans. The battle is best remembered for General Andrew Jackson's stiff resistance to British incursion and for the death of British Major General Edward Pakenham (courtesy Library of Congress/LC-USZC2-3796).

Causes of the War of 1812

The origins of the War of 1812 were in the conflict that raged in Europe for almost two decades after Napoleon Bonaparte became First Consul (later Emperor) of France. These Napoleonic Wars (1799–1815) caused Great Britain to adopt measures that greatly aggravated the United States.

On 21 November 1806, Napoleon ordered a blockade of shipping (the Berlin Decree) aimed at crippling British trade. He ordered all European ports under his control closed to British ships and further decreed that neutral and French ships would be seized if they visited a British port before entering a continental port (the so-called Continental System).

Great Britain responded to Napoleon with a series of orders-in-council requiring all neutral ships to obtain a licence before they could sail to Europe. Following the victory of Lord Nelson at Trafalgar on 21 October 1805, Great Britain had the sea power to enforce its blockade of France.

For many years the Americans had grappled with the problems of being a neutral nation in the great European war. Tensions mounted as the British began stopping American ships from trading in Europe. Even more vexing was the British practice of searching American vessels for “contraband” (defined by the British as goods they declared illegal) and of searching for deserters who had fled the harsh conditions of the Royal Navy. Many of these deserters had taken jobs on American ships, but American certificates of citizenship made no impression on the British. Moreover, some British captains even tried to impress (seize) native-born Americans and put them into service on British ships.

The battle between the British warship HMS Leopard (left) and the American warship US Chesapeake (right) on 22 June 1807, in which the British attacked and boarded the Chesapeake, was a catalyst for all-out war a few years later (painting by F. Muller, courtesy American Memory, Library of Congress).

These maritime tensions exploded, literally, in 1807 off the shore of Chesapeake Bay. While a British naval squadron was watching the area for French ships, several British sailors deserted and promptly enlisted in the American navy. The captain of the American 38-gun frigate Chesapeake knew that he had deserters on board when HMS Leopard tried to board and search his ship. When the Chesapeake refused to heave to, the 50-gun Leopard opened fire, killing three and injuring 18 of the crew. The British boarded and seized four men. Known as the “Chesapeake Affair,” the event outraged even temperate Americans. Several years later, on 1 May 1811, officers from the British ship HMS Guerriere impressed an American sailor from a coastal vessel, causing further tension.

This dispute over maritime rights might have been resolved with diplomacy in fact, the new British government of Lord Liverpool rescinded the orders-in-council a few days before the US declared war, though the news hadn’t reached America in time. Moreover, not all Americans wanted war with Great Britain, notably the merchants of New England and New York.

However, President James Madison was intrigued by the analysis of Major General Henry Dearborn that in the event of war, Canada would be easy pickings — even that an invasion would be welcomed by the Canadians. Furthermore, the “War Hawks,” a group of Congressmen from the south and west, loudly demanded war. Motivated by Anglophobia and nationalism, these Republicans encouraged war as a means to retaliate against Britain for the economic distress caused by the blockade, and for what they perceived as British support for the First Nations in resisting American expansion into the West. On 18 June 1812, President Madison signed a declaration of war against Great Britain, supported by both the Senate and Congress.

American and British Planning

As American leaders planned their invasion of Canada, they quickly decided that Upper Canada was the most vulnerable to attack. The Atlantic provinces were protected by British sea power, and Lower Canada was protected by its remoteness and by the fortress of Quebec (see Quebec City in the War of 1812). In contrast, Upper Canada seemed to be an easy target. The population was predominantly American, and the province was lightly defended.

Upper Canada was defended by about 1,600 British regulars, formed mostly from the 41st Regiment of Foot and detachments from other units. However, the badly outnumbered British were in fact better prepared than the Americans knew. The 41st Regiment of British regulars had been reinforced by a number of militia units (although their loyalty and reliability was uncertain). The Provincial Marine controlled Lake Ontario. Much of the preparation was thanks to the foresight of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, administrator of Upper Canada. Brock had a thorough grasp of the challenges of the upcoming conflict and had been preparing for five years, reinforcing fortifications, training militia units and, perhaps most important, developing alliances with the First Nations.

First Nations and Métis Peoples in the War of 1812

Studio portrait taken in July 1882 of the surviving Six Nations warriors who fought with the British in the War of 1812. (Right to left:) Sakawaraton - John Smoke Johnson (born ca. 1792) John Tutela (born ca. 1797) and Young Warner (born ca. 1794).

First Nations and Métis peoples played a significant role in Canada in the War of 1812. The conflict forced various Indigenous peoples to overcome longstanding differences and unite against a common enemy. It also strained alliances, such as the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy, in which some nations were allied with American forces. Most First Nations strategically allied themselves with Great Britain during the war, seeing the British as the lesser of two colonial evils (see Indigenous-British Relations Pre-Confederation) and the group most interested in maintaining traditional territories and trade (see First Nations and Métis Peoples in the War of 1812).

Tecumseh allied his forces with those of the British during the War of 1812, and his active participation was crucial. Painting by W.B. Turner (courtesy Metropolitan Toronto Library, J. Ross Robertson/T-16600).

Two Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, implored Indigenous peoples to unite in order to defend their dwindling lands against the growing incursions of American settlers and the United States government. The promise of such an Aboriginal state never came to fruition. During negotiations for the Treaty of Ghent (1814) that ended the war, the British tried to bargain for the creation of an Indian Territory, but the American delegates refused to agree.

Meeting of Isaac Brock and Tecumseh, 1812 (painting by C.W. Jeffreys, courtesy Library and Archives Canada/ C-073719).

For Indigenous peoples living in British North America, the War of 1812 marked the end of an era of self-reliance and self-determination. Soon they would become outnumbered by settlers in their own lands. Any social or political influence enjoyed before the war dissipated. Within a generation, the contributions of so many different peoples, working together with their British and Canadian allies against a common foe, would be all but forgotten (see Aboriginal Title and the War of 1812).

The British Attack

Isaac Brock was long remembered as the fallen hero and saviour of Upper Canada (courtesy Library and Archives Canada/C-36181).

Sir Isaac Brock was dissatisfied by the number of troops at his disposal, with only some 1,600 regulars in the province. But he was not prepared to simply wait passively for the Americans to act. He believed that a bold military stroke would galvanize the population and encourage First Nations to come to his side. He therefore sent orders to the commanding officer of Fort St. Joseph on Lake Huron to capture a key American post at Michilimackinac Island on 17 July. Nearly 400 Dakota (Sioux), Menominee, Winnebago, Odawa and Ojibwe warriors, along with 45 British soldiers and some 200 voyageurs (including Métis) captured the fort quickly and without bloodshed.

Britain's Upper Lakes Naval Base just before the Battle of Lake Erie. In the midst of supply shortages, the crew of the new flagship HMS Detroit is seen fitting a sail borrowed from the HMS Queen Charlotte anchored on the right. After their defeat on the Lake, the British abandoned this site, and located their new Upper Lakes naval base at Penetanguishene, on Lake Huron (“Sunset at the Amherstburg Navy Yard” by Peter Rindlisbacher).

Meanwhile, an American force under General William Hull had crossed from Detroit into Canada, forcing Brock to quickly march his men from the town of York to counter the invasion. When he arrived at the British fort at Amherstburg, Brock found that the American invasion force had already withdrawn to Detroit (see Fort Amherstburg and the War of 1812). With the great Shawnee chief Tecumseh at his side, he boldly demanded that Hull surrender Detroit, which the hapless general did on 16 August, in effect giving the British control of Michigan territory and the Upper Mississippi (see Capture of Detroit, War of 1812).

The surprise capitulation of Fort Detroit in August, 1812 was preceded by a naval bombardment from the Detroit River. The brig HMS General Hunter and HMS Queen Charlotte sent volleys into the Fort and walled town of Detroit damage was minimal, but the cannon fire had a powerful psychological effect nevertheless ("Bombardment of Fort Detroit, 1812" by Peter Rindlisbacher).

Campaigns in Upper Canada (1812)

At this point Thomas Jefferson’s remark that the capture of Canada was “a mere matter of marching” returned to haunt Washington. Having lost one army at Detroit, the Americans lost another at Queenston Heights (13 October 1812) after their militia refused to cross into Canada, citing the constitutional guarantee that it would not have to fight on foreign soil. (However, during the engagement, Brock was killed — a significant loss to the British and Canadian cause.)


The Battle of Queenston Heights on 13 October 1812 was both a victory and a tragedy for the British and Canadian forces against the invading American army, and resulted in the death of Isaac Brock (foreground) (painting by John David, courtesy Library and Archives Canada/C-000273).

A new American army under William Henry Harrison struggled up from Kentucky to try to retake Detroit. One wing was so badly mauled at Frenchtown (22 January 1813) by a force of British, Canadians and First Nations under Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Procter, that further attempts at invasion that winter were abandoned. The only Americans in Canada were prisoners of war.

With the death of Brock, British strategy was to act defensively and allow the invaders to make mistakes. Governor Sir George Prevost conserved his thin forces carefully, keeping a strong garrison at Quebec and sending reinforcements to Upper Canada only when additional troops arrived from overseas.

Portrait of Sir George Prevost, attributed to Robert Field, circa 1808-11. He led the Swiss de Meurons infantry in the War of 1812 (courtesy McCord Museum/McGill University).

Coloured Corps

The Coloured Corps was a militia company of Black men raised during the War of 1812 by Richard Pierpoint, a formerly enslaved man from Bondu (Senegal) and military veteran of the American Revolution. Created in Upper Canada, where enslavement had been limited in 1793, the corps was composed of free and enslaved Black men. Many were veterans of the American Revolution, in which they fought for the British (see Black Loyalists). The Coloured Corps fought in the Battle of Queenston Heights and the Battle of Fort George before it was attached to the Royal Engineers as a construction company.


The company was disbanded on 24 March 1815, following the end of the war. In claiming rewards for their service, many faced adversity and discrimination. Sergeant William Thompson was informed he “must go and look for his pay himself,” while Richard Pierpoint, then in his 70s, was denied his request for passage home to Africa in lieu of a land grant. When grants were distributed in 1821, veterans of the Coloured Corps received only 100 acres, half that of their White counterparts. Many veterans did not settle the land they were granted because it was of poor quality. Despite these inequities, the Coloured Corps defended Canada honourably, setting the precedent for the formation of Black units in future (see The Coloured Corps: Black Canadians and the War of 1812).

A member of the 104th (New Brunswick) Regiment of Foot.

Campaigns in Upper Canada (1813)

As the campaign of 1813 opened, an American flotilla of 16 ships landed at York (now Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada. The Americans briefly occupied the town, burning the public buildings and seizing valuable naval supplies destined for Lake Erie (see The Sacking of York) however, the British frustrated the American plan to appropriate a half-completed warship at York by burning it instead. Had the Americans succeeded, they might have gained greater control over Lake Ontario. As it was, neither side totally controlled that lake for the balance of the war.

The Americans soon abandoned York and on 27 May 1813 their fleet seized Fort George at the mouth of the Niagara River. While this was the bleakest period of the war for the British, the military situation was not irretrievable. The Americans did not take advantage of their success, and failed to immediately pursue General John Vincent and his army as they retreated from Fort George to Burlington Heights. The American forces did not set out from Fort George until 2 June, allowing the British time to recover and prepare. On the night of 5 June 1813, Vincent’s men attacked the American forces at Stoney Creek. In a fierce battle, the British dislodged the Americans, capturing two of their generals. The dispirited American force retired towards Niagara.

British Red Coats on the field at the Battle of Stoney Creek. The engagement at Stoney Creek returned the Niagara Peninsula to British and Canadian control and ended the US attempt to conquer the western part of the province (painting by Peter Rindlisbacher).

The Americans suffered another defeat three weeks later at Beaver Dams, where some 600 men were captured by a force of 300 Kahnawake and a further 100 Mohawk warriors led by Captain William Kerr (see Mohawk of the St. Lawrence Valley). The British had been warned of the American attack by Laura Secord, a Loyalist whose husband had been wounded at the Battle of Queenston Heights.

DID YOU KNOW?
Laura Secord walked 30 km from Queenston to Beaver Dams, near Thorold, to warn James FitzGibbon that the Americans were planning to attack his outpost. Secord took a circuitous route through inhospitable terrain to avoid American sentries on her trek and was helped by a group of Mohawk warriors she encountered along the way.



Finally, worn down by sickness, desertion and the departure of short-term soldiers, the American command evacuated Fort George on 10 December and quit Canada. On leaving, the militia burned the town of Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake), an act that drove the British to brutal retaliation at Buffalo. These incendiary reprisals continued until Washington itself was burned by the British the following August (see The Burning of Washington).

War on the Western Flank (1813–14)

The Americans fared better on the western flank. The British tried and failed to take William Henry Harrison’s stronghold at Fort Meigs on the Maumee River. A struggle for control of Lake Erie followed (see War on the Lakes). The two rival fleets, both built of green lumber on the shores of the lake, met 10 September 1813 at Put-in-Bay. The British were hampered by the American seizure of naval supplies at York the previous spring and by the loss, early in the battle, of several senior officers. American commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, a bold seaman, used unorthodox tactics to turn defeat into victory and become the first man in history to capture an entire British fleet.

US Admiral Oliver Perry at Put-in-Bay during the Battle of Lake Erie, at the moment when he rowed his way through enemy fire from the severely damaged St Lawrence to the Niagara (painting by William Henry Powell, courtesy United States Senate).

The Americans gained dominance over the upper Great Lakes and Lake Erie in effect became an American lake. The British army abandoned Detroit and retreated up the Thames River. Henry Procter delayed fatally in his retreat, however, and Harrison caught up with him at the Battle of the Thames (Moraviantown). There, the exhausted British regulars and First Nations warriors were routed and scattered. Procter fled and Tecumseh was killed. The defeat was not fatal to the province, as Harrison could not follow up his victory (his Kentuckians were eager to get back to their farms at harvest time), but it effectively ended the First Nations alliance.

In “Battle of the Thames”, artist William Emmons depicts the 5 October 1813 battle that resulted in the death of legendary Shawnee war chief Tecumseh (courtesy W.H. Coverdale Collection of Canadiana, Library and Archives Canada/C-04103).

On Lake Huron, the American fleet searched for British supply vessels, which led to the sinking of the Nancy they also razed Sault Ste. Marie on 21 July 1814, and attempted to recapture Fort Michilimackinac (see Battle of Mackinac Island). The British regained a presence on the lake in early September with the capture of the Tigress and Scorpion.

The War in Lower Canada (1813)

America forces also invaded Lower Canada during the war. The Americans could potentially have struck a mortal blow against the British in Lower Canada, but their invading armies, which outnumbered the British 10–1, were led with almost incredible ineptitude by Generals James Wilkinson and Wade Hampton. A miscellaneous force of British regulars, Voltigeurs, militia and First Nations harassed the advancing Americans and turned the invasion back at Châteauguay (25–26 October 1813) under Lieutenant-Colonel Charles de Salaberry, and at Crysler’s Farm (near Cornwall, ON) on 11 November 1813, under Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Wanton Morrison.

Voltigeurs

The Canadian Voltigeurs was a volunteer corps raised and commanded by Charles-Michel d’Irumberry de Salaberry, a British army officer born in Beauport, Lower Canada. The Voltigeurs were initially assigned to defend the Eastern Townships.

Canadian Voltigeurs performing target practice, c. 1812-1813 (artwork by Eugene Leliepvre, courtesy Parks Canada/PD No. 501).

In November 1812, they faced American Major General Dearborn and his 6,000-strong force, who invaded the region from Plattsburgh. De Salaberry rushed with a company of Voltigeurs and 230 Kahnawake Mohawk warriors to staunch the invasion at Lacolle. While they could not halt the invasion, days of skirmishing increased the cost, and Dearborn retreated days later.

In the spring of 1813, the Voltigeur units split, with some bolstered the defences at Kingston and others participating in the failed assault on Sackets Harbor.

Last Invasion of Upper Canada (1814)

The following year, 1814, the Americans again invaded Upper Canada, crossing the Niagara River at Buffalo. They easily seized Fort Erie on 3 July, and on 5 July turned back a rash attack by the British under General Phineas Riall at Chippawa.

The whole Niagara campaign came to a climax with the bloodiest battle of the war, at Lundy’s Lane on 25 July. Fought in the pitch dark of a sultry night by exhausted troops who could not tell friend from foe, it ended in a stalemate.

Lundy's Lane was the site of a battle fought between American troops and British regulars assisted by Canadian Fencibles and militia on the sultry evening of 25 July 1814. It was one of the most important battles of the war, halting the American advance into Upper Canada (courtesy New York State Military Museum).

The American invasion was now effectively spent, and they withdrew to Fort Erie. Here they badly trounced the forces of the new British commander, Lieutenant-General Gordon Drummond, when he attempted a night attack (14–15 August 1814). With both sides exhausted, a three-month standoff followed (see Siege of Fort Erie). Finally, on 5 November, the Americans again withdrew across the Niagara River, effectively ending the war in Upper Canada.

Invading the United States (1814)

On the Atlantic front, Nova Scotia’s Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John Sherbrooke, led a force from Halifax into Maine, capturing Castine on 1 September 1814. By the middle of September, British forces held much of the Maine coast, which was returned to the US only with the signing of the peace treaty in December 1814.

The most formidable effort by the British in 1814 was the invasion of northern New York, in which Governor Sir George Prevost led 11,000 British veterans of the Napoleonic Wars to Plattsburgh on Lake Champlain. However, Prevost was hesitant to attack, and the defeat of the British fleet in Plattsburgh Bay by the American commodore, Thomas Macdonough, on 11 September led Prevost to withdraw his troops.

The Treaty of Ghent

Prevost’s decision to withdraw from American territory affected peace negotiations in Ghent, which had begun in August 1814. Had Prevost’s invasion succeeded, much of upper New York State might be Canadian today. However, his withdrawal forced the British peace negotiators at Ghent to lower their demands and accept the status quo. When the treaty was signed on Christmas Eve 1814, all conquests were to be restored and disputes over boundaries were deferred to joint commissions (see Treaty of Ghent).

Hostilities continued after the peace treaty was signed, however. The last battle of the war is often cited as the Battle of New Orleans (8 January 1815), but British and American forces also clashed on 11 February 1815 at Fort Bowyer on Mobile Bay. Several naval engagements also followed the signing of the treaty, including the final battle of the war, between the US sloop Peacock and East India cruiser Nautilus in the Indian Ocean, four-and-a-half months after the peace treaty was signed.

Who Won or Lost the War of 1812?

Washington had expected the largely American population of Upper Canada to throw off the “British yoke” as soon as its army crossed the border. This did not happen. Lured northwards by free land and low taxes, most settlers wanted to be left alone. Thus the British and Loyalist elite were able to set Canadians on a different course from that of their former enemy.

Several units of the Canadian militia actively participated in the war this included the Coloured Corps, a small corps of Black Canadians that fought at the Battle of Queenston Heights (see also Richard Pierpoint Heritage Minute). Although the majority of the fighting was done by British regulars and First Nations warriors, a myth developed that civilian soldiers had won the war, and this helped to germinate the seeds of nationalism in the Canadas.

Canada owes its present shape to negotiations that grew out of the peace, while the war itself — or the myths created by the war — gave Canadians their first sense of community and laid the foundation for their future nationhood. To this extent the Canadians were the real winners of the War of 1812.

For the Americans, the outcome was more ambiguous. Since the issues of impressment and maritime rights were not resolved in the peace treaty, the war could be considered a failure however, the Americans had some spectacular victories at sea, which were indicators of the future potential of American power. The war was certainly a failure for the “War Hawks,” who wanted to annex, or take over, Canada — the war proved that this was not militarily feasible. The conclusions that the war was a “second war of independence” or a war of honour and respect are less easy to judge.

If the winners are qualified, the losers are easier to identify. The death of Tecumseh and the defeat of the First Nations at the Battle of the Thames broke apart Tecumseh’s confederacy (see First Nations and Métis Peoples in the War of 1812). Similarly, in the related defeat of the Creek Nation, any hope of halting American expansion into First Nations territory effectively ended. While in Canada the First Nations fared better in preserving their land and culture, in the end the British abandoned their Indigenous allies in the peace, just as they had several times before.


War Of 1812 Articles

Explore articles from the HistoryNet archives about War Of 1812

War Of 1812 summary: The War of 1812 was an armed conflict between the United States and the British Empire. The British restricted the American trade since they feared it was harmful for their war with France. They also wanted to set up an Indian state in the Midwest in order to maintain their influence in the region, which is why 10,000 Native Americans fought on the side of the British. Since Canada was a British colony back then, Canadians were also British allies. The Americans objected to the British Empire restricting their trade and snatching their sailors to serve on British ships. They were also eager to prove their independence from the British Empire once and for all.


War of 1812 Events in Massachusetts:

At first, the war didn’t affect Massachusetts much because the British spared New England in hopes that they would not engage in hostilities and might even side with Britain and Canada in the conflict.

The original “Star Spangled Banner” flown at Fort McHenry during the War of 1812, photographed in the Boston Naval Yard, Boston, Mass, circa 1873.

Britain’s leniency on New England didn’t last though and from the spring of 1813 until the end of the war in 1815, British ships constantly hovered around the Massachusetts coast and threatened to destroy the coastal towns in the state.

Much of the Massachusetts coast was in a British blockade during the war and many coastal towns came under attack from the British navy, particularly in the year 1814 when the British government ramped up its effort to win the ongoing war.

In Cape Cod, the British navy began extorting numerous towns by threatening to attack them if they didn’t pay them, according to the book Attack of the HMS Nimrod: Wareham and the War of 1812:

“British fleet commanders often demanded payment from the various Cape Cod towns in exchange for holding off on an attack. In one case, Admiral Lord Howe sailed the HMS Newcastle to Orleans and proclaimed that if the town did not pay $1,000, he would destroy the salt works. Other Cape towns, including Eastham and Brewster, paid substantial sums to the British to save their salt works. Salt making at the time was an important Cape Cod industry due to the close connection of salt with fishing. Cape Cod was the saltshaker of America. It was the major export and moneymaker of Cape Cod.”

The towns of Barnstable, Falmouth, Sandwich and Orleans were the only towns in Cape Cod who refused to pay the extortion fee which left them vulnerable to attacks by the British.

On June 1, 1813, the Battle of Boston Harbor (otherwise known as the Capture of the USS Chesapeake) took place. This was a battle between the British navy frigate HMS Shannon and the American frigate USS Chesapeake. A total of 80 men were killed and 252 were wounded. The British captured the Chesapeake and took it to Halifax, Nova Scotia were its sailors were imprisoned.

In January of 1814, the British brig Nimrod anchored off the wharf in Barnstable and demanded the artillery pieces and other property there and threatened to fire upon the town if they refused.

On January 28, 1814, the Nimrod sailed to Falmouth and demanded the town’s artillery pieces and threatened to attack the town if it refused. The local militia refused. The Nimrod responded by firing upon the town for several hours before finally leaving. Many buildings were damaged in the bombardment but no lives were lost.

On April 3, 1814, the USS Constitution fled to Marblehead harbor when it was being chased by the HM frigates Tenedos and Junon. The two ships had come across the Constitution when it was attempting to return to Boston after capturing British ships in the West Indies.

The Constitution fled to Marblehead harbor to seek protection from Fort Sewall. While the USS Constitution anchored in the harbor, the Tenedos and Junon anchored six miles off shore to wait the ship out.

The Constitution’s captain worried that Fort Sewall’s defense might not be strong enough to fight off the two ships if they made an attack at nightfall, so the captain snuck out of the harbor and sailed to Salem harbor that afternoon to seek protection from Fort Pickering.

The Constitution stayed there for about a week to wait out the pursuing ships. After the Tenedos and Junon eventually gave up and left, the USS Constitution made its way safely back to Boston and continued to participate in the war. In total, the USS Constitution defeated five British warships during the War of 1812.

“Action between the Constitution and the Guerriere,” engraving by John Rogers and John Reuben, circa 1859

On June 11, 1814, barges from two British ships entered Scituate Harbor and burned several ships before stealing several others.

On June 13, 1814, the British ship the Nimrod bombarded Wareham and burned the cotton factory there after firing upon it with a Congreve rocket. The Nimrod dispatched barges carrying 225 soldiers who invaded the town.

The British captured Captain Bumpus and brought him to his home where they confiscated and destroyed the military supplies stored there. A total of four American schooners, five sloops, a ship, a brig, and a brig-under-assembly at a local shipyard were burned by the British.

After the attack, the Nimrod ran aground in nearby Buzzard’s Bay and, to lighten the ship’s load and prevent it from sinking, the crew threw the ship’s five cannons overboard before sailing on their way. (About 175 years later, in 1987, a diving crew from the Kendall Whaling Museum of Sharon, Mass, found the cannons in the bay and donated one of them to the Falmouth Historical Society where it is still on display today.)

On June 17, 1814, some British frigates and several small ships anchored near Cohasset and demanded a contribution of provisions from the local militia, who refused. Barges from the British ships burned a sloop at or near Cohasset Harbor but it is not clear of this happened on June 17 or on another day in June.

In July of 1814, the British conquered and took over control of Fort Sullivan, in Maine, (Maine was a part of Massachusetts at the time.)

Forts all along the New England coast began strengthening their defenses. This included forts in Bath and Portland, Maine and in Portsmouth, NH, as well as Fort Lilly in Gloucester, Ma, Fort Pickering in Salem, Ma, Fort Sewall in Marblehead, Ma, and Fort Warren and Fort Independence in Boston Harbor.

In September of 1814, Boston expected to be attacked next. Governor Strong finally issued orders on September 6, 1814, for 4,000 troops to march to Boston at once and ordered the state militia to be ready to march to Boston at a moment’s notice.

The troops began to gather on September 8 and were placed under the supervision of Major General Joseph Whiton. By the middle of September in 1814, the city had over 5,000 troops stationed at its various forts and batteries.

The city decided not only to fortify its existing defenses but to also build a new fort in case of attack and called for volunteers to help build it, according to the Records of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia:

“An attack upon the important City of Boston was confidently expected it was the capital
of New England, and the moral effect of its capture would be great. It was a place for the construction of American war vessels, which the enemy feared more than armies. On this account also its capture or destruction was desirable. It was also a wealthy town, and offered a rich harvest for plunderers. It was well known too that it was almost defenseless. Caleb Strong, then Governor, was, it was well known, intensely opposed to the war and it was not until after all her territory east of the Penobscot river in the District of Maine, (then a part of Massachusetts,) was in possession of the enemy, that any energetic measures were taken for its defense. Then a public meeting was called to consider the matter, and a committee consisting of Harrison Gray Otis, and others, was appointed to wait on the Governor, and present to him an address on the defenseless state of the city. The Governor listened to this appeal, and at once instituted measures for the defense of the whole line of the coast of the State, and of the District of Maine. A heavy fort was at once commenced on Noddle’s Island, (now East Boston,) under the supervision of Major Loammi Baldwin as chief engineer a call was made for volunteers to work on the fortification, and the response was patriotic large numbers of the citizens of all classes and trades might be seen day after day toiling like common laborers.”

On September 8, 1814, 77-year-old Paul Revere signed a petition volunteering his labor to help Governor Caleb Strong in strengthening Boston’s defense against the threat of attack by the British.

According to the Research Director of the Paul Revere House, Patrick M. Leehey, as a Federalist, Revere opposed the War of 1812 but still felt he had a duty to protect the city from attack.

Revere’s help was accepted and he helped build Fort Strong on Noddle’s Island in September and October of 1814. (Revere’s copper mill, which was run by his son at the time, also created three tons of copper for naval use each week and the American navy used Revere-made cannons during the War of 1812.)

The fort on Noddle’s Island was finished on October 20, 1814 and named Fort Strong in honor of the governor (the fort was later moved to another island in Boston harbor, Long Island, later in the century.) In addition, fortifications were also erected at South Boston Point and on Savin Hill.

Other preventative measures were also taken, such as the purchase of ships that were intended to be sunk in the channel to prevent the British from landing in Boston.

Also, the bridges leading to Boston from the towns of Chelsea, Charlestown, Brighton and Cambridge, were placed under armed guard, with about 50-60 axe-men at each of them who were ordered to destroy the bridges if the British approached.

On September 9, 1814, just after midnight, the Old Stone Fort at Bearskin Neck in Rockport was captured in a sneak attack by the British frigate the Nymphe. Upon capture, the fort was dismantled, the ammunition was looted and all nine seafencibles were taken prisoner.

After one of two barges sent ashore by the British fired a shot upon the town, the force of the shot damaged the barge and sank it. The nine crew members on board were seized and taken prisoner by the townspeople.

The local militia refused to exchange the British prisoners for the American prisoners so the townspeople reportedly negotiated a secret exchange with the British commander themselves.

On December 19, 1814, after a British ship, HMS Newcastle, tried to extort the town of Orleans, in Cape Cod, in an attempt to hold off on an attack, the residents of the town refused. The HMS Newcastle then tried to bombard the town, but the large ship was too big to get within firing range of Orleans. Its cannonballs fell short of the town and did little damage, if any at all.

The local militia gathered and fought off an attempted British landing and invasion. Several British sailors were killed before the British finally retreated.

The War of 1812 technically ended on December 24, 1814 when Britain and the United States signed a peace treaty, called the Treaty of Ghent.

It took over a month for news of the treaty to reach all of the British forces though. Unaware of the treaty, British forces in the Gulf Coast launched a major attack on New Orleans in February of 1815, which the Americans won.

On February 12, 1815, the news finally reached Boston that Britain and the United States that the war was over.

On February 17, 1815, the Treaty of Ghent was ratified by the U.S. Senate and Madison declared the war officially over.

Neither Britain or America won the War of 1812 since it ended in a stalemate.


Other Resources

Officers of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps in the War of 1812 List of all commissioned and warrant officers of the Navy and Marines on the Naval Historical Center web site.

Star-Spangled Banner and the War of 1812 Smithsonian site on the star-spangled banner.

United States naval history: a biography Naval Historical Center bibliography on naval history by period.

War of 1812 Frequently asked questions about the War of 1812 at the Naval Historical Center.

The War of 1812 Chapter 6 from American Military History, part of the Army Historical Series of the Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army.

This page was last reviewed on September 29, 2020.
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